Due to the characteristic of the skin of the submental region, which make it an available or desirable flap site for facial and intraoral reconstruction surgery, the submental artery which is found in this region is also of great importance. The submental artery is a branch of the facial artery. It arises from the facial artery as it passes along the submandibular gland. The submental artery can arise from the facial artery either deep or superficial to the submandibular gland and it generally supplies the musculocutaneous region of the mandible and the chin.
After it arises, the submental artery courses forward and runs medially on the mylohyoid muscle and terminates behind the mandibular symphysis just lateral to the midline.
In most cases, the submental artery is found running deep to the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. This artery gives off branches along its course, including cutaneous perforating branches that pierce and supply the upper part of the platysma. These perforating branches of the submental artery forma a subdermal plexus which anastomoses with the collateral branches. Branches of the submental artery also form anastomoses with the inferior labial artery and the sublingual system.
Other branches that arise from the submental artery go on to supply the lower lip, the submental skin or the skin below the chin and the sublingual gland.
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