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The central sulcus of insula or sulcus centralis insulae in latin, is a narrow fissure that slants posterosuperiorly from the apex of the insular cortex. It divides the insular surface into a large upper anterior part: the short gyri (or gyri brevi/ breves), and a small lower posterior part: the long gyri (or gyri longi/ longus).
The anterior portion is divided by shallow sulci into three or four short gyri, and it lies superior to the central sulcus. On the other hand, the posterior portion located below the short gyri and inferior to the central sulcus, consists of one long gyrus. The latter is often further divided at its upper end, into anterior and posterior transverse temporal gyri.
The insula is a pyramidal shaped lobe of the cerebral hemisphere. It lies in the floor of the lateral cerebral fissure, deep to the posterior ramus. It is almost surrounded by a circular sulcus, and overlapped by cortical areas called opercula (lids): frontal, fronto-parietal, temporal.
The vascular supply of the insula is provided by the middle cerebral artery (arising from the internal carotid artery), through its cortical branches. As for the venous drainage, the basal vein receives tributaries from the insular and opercular cortex, and drains them into the great cerebral vein.
The insula is involved in various diverse functions. It is associated with cognitive function, perception, motor control, self-awareness, and consciousness.
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