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The jugum sphenoidale in both English and Latin (‘jugum’ meaning yoke) is a plane that forms the anterior portion of the sphenoid bone of the skull, and unites its two lesser wings at the midline.
The sphenoid bone is found at the base of the skull between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones. It consists of a central body, paired greater and lesser wings, and two pterygoid processes. The body of the sphenoid is cuboidal in shape, and contains two air sinuses that are separated by a septum. Its superior cerebral surface articulates in front with the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. The body of sphenoid is the area in which the smooth jugum sphenoidale exists anteriorly. The elevated jugum is bounded in front by the sella turcica, a saddle shaped depression that contains the pituitary gland. From behind, it is bounded by the anterior border of the transverse shallow chiasmatic groove (sulcus chiasmatis in Latin), a groove on either side of the optic foramen that transmits both the optic nerve (CN II) and the ophthalmic artery and leads laterally to the optic canals. The jugum is related to the gyrus rectus (gyri recti in Latin) and the olfactory tracts as well.
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