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The long thoracic nerve arises from the ventral rami of the roots of the fifth to the seventh cervical rami (C5-C7), although the ramus from C7 may be absent. The roots from C5 and 6 pierce the scalenus medius muscle and unite within it or lateral to it. The root of C7 passes between the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles to join the first two roots. The nerve descends dorsal to the brachial plexus and the axillary artery before it reaches the lateral surface of the serratus anterior muscle. It continues to the lower border of this muscle and supplies branches to each of its digitations (finger-like projections).
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