The supraspinatus muscle, or musculus supraspinatus in Latin, is a muscle of the upper limb. Its proximal attachment, or point of origin, is the supraspinous fossa of the scapula, which is located on the posterior surface of the scapula, superior to the spine of scapula. By passing inferior to the acromion of the scapula, the supraspinatus muscle inserts distally onto the superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus, superior to the attachment of the infraspinatus muscle on the middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus, and the teres minor muscle on the inferior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus. The supraspinatus muscle is one of the six, short scapulohumeral muscles which pass from the scapula to the humerus, to act on the glenohumeral joint, or shoulder joint. The other five scapulohumeral muscles are: the deltoid muscle, the teres major muscle, the teres minor muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, and the subscapularis muscle. These muscles are also called the intrinsic shoulder muscles. The supraspinatus muscle, along with the infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles are together known as the rotator cuff muscles, or SITS muscles. Their primary function is to protect and stabilize the glenohumeral joint during movement by holding the humeral head in place, against the glenoid fossa, or glenoid cavity of the scapula. The most common injury to the rotator cuff, which results in instability of the glenohumeral joint, is rupture or tearing of the supraspinatus muscle. The supraspinatus muscle is the only rotator cuff muscle to not act as a rotator of the humerus. In addition to its role in stabilizing and protecting the glenohumeral joint, the supraspinatus muscle also initiates abduction of the arm at the glenohumeral joint, therefore assisting the deltoid muscle with the first fifteen degrees of arm abduction. Innervation of the supraspinatus muscle is by the suprascapular nerve, from cervical spinal nerves C4, C5, and C6. Arterial supply is from the suprascapular artery, which arises from the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery, or in some cases arises directly from the subclavian artery.
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