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The urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, distensible organ of the urinary system, whose main function is the collection and storage of urine before it is voided through urination, also known as micturition. The urinary bladder is innervated by the vesical plexus.
The vesical plexus receives sympathetic fibers from the lumbar and sacral splanchnic nerves, and parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic splanchnic nerves (S 2 - S 4) via the inferior hypogastric plexus. The fibers of the vesical plexus accompany the visceral artery to the bladder. Of course, maintaining bladder control is very important and this falls under the realm of the nerves that innervate the muscles of the bladder and the urethra.
The sympathetic fibers of the vesical plexus do play a role in micturition, however, the parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic splanchnic nerves play a more significant role in this process. These parasympathetic fibers play an important role in micturition as the visceral reflex afferents, that are concerned with the evacuation of the urinary bladder, follow the course of the parasympathetic fibers. In other words, the parasympathetic fibers control and initiate micturition.
As such, a complete transection of the spinal cord would result in problems with bladder control, as this would abolish the effect of the higher central nervous system (CNS) centers on the parasympathetic neurons of the pelvic splanchnic nerves.
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