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The supraglenoid tubercle, also called the tuberculum supraglenoidale, is a feature of the scapula, or shoulder bone. “Tubercle” comes from the Latin term tuber, meaning lump, “supra” is the Latin term for above, while “glenoid” comes from the Greek word “glene”, meaning socket. This tubercle, which is a small, rounded, and rough protuberance from the scapula, is located “above the socket”, or superior to the glenoid cavity of the scapula. It is also located anterior to the base of the coracoid process of the scapula. The inferiorly located glenoid cavity, or glenoid fossa, is a shallow depression of the scapula that articulates with the humerus. This articulation of the glenoid cavity with the proximal head of the humerus forms the glenohumeral joint, also known as the shoulder joint. The glenohumeral joint is a multiaxial, synovial, ball and socket joint with a loose joint capsule. The supraglenoid tubercle lies within the glenohumeral joint capsule. The supraglenoid tubercle is also the site of attachment for the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle.
The biceps brachii muscle is a two-headed muscle: the short head of the biceps brachii originates from the coracoid process of the scapula, while the long head of the biceps brachii originates from the supraglenoid tubercle. From the supraglenoid tubercle the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle exits the joint capsule to course inferiorly along the intertubercular groove, or intertubercular sulcus, of the humerus. It eventually joins with the short head of the biceps brachii muscle along the shaft of the humerus.
The supraglenoid tubercle is one of two glenoid tubercles. Inferior to the glenoid cavity of the scapula lies the other protuberance, called the infraglenoid tubercle, or tuberculum infraglenoidale. It is the site of attachment for the tendon of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle.
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