The arteries that supply the pancreas, duodenum and spleen arise from the celiac trunk which arises directly from the abdominal aorta at approximately the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (T 12) and the superior mesenteric artery which arises from the abdominal aorta at approximately the level of the first lumbar vertebra (L 1).
Blood supply to the duodenum comes from the gastroduodenal artery which arises from the common hepatic artery, a direct branch of the celiac trunk. The gastroduodenal artery also gives rise to the anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries which supply both the duodenum and the head of the pancreas. The anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries form anastamoses with the anterior and posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries which arise from the superior mesenteric artery. The superior mesenteric artery forms an anastamoses with the inferior pancreatic artery.
The proper hepatic artery, which is also a branch of the common hepatic artery, gives rise to the right gastric artery that courses along the lesser curvature of the stomach and anastamoses with the left gastric artery, and the cystic artery that supplies the gallbladder.
Another branch of the celiac trunk, the splenic artery, supplies the spleen and gives off pancreatic branches to the pancreas.The splenic artery also gives off the left gastroomental artery, the dorsal pancreatic artery and the small gastric arteries.
The superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein, which drains the small intestine, and the splenic vein which drains the spleen as well as parts of the stomach and pancreas, do not open into the inferior vena cava but rather unite to form the hepatic portal vein.
Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we’re here to help you pass with flying colours.