The heart, which is situated in the mediastinum, is responsible for the circulation of blood around the whole body. When we look at the posteroinferior view of the heart, also known as the diaphragmatic surface, we can see the vessels, exterior surfaces of the chambers of the heart as well as other structures. The posteroinferior surface of the heart is formed by the left and right ventricles and the left atrium.
The left atrium which forms the base of the heart can also be seen, as well as the left and right pulmonary veins which empty into it.
The superior vena cava, the inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus all open into the right atrium and can be visualized from the inferior aspect of the heart.
The aortic arch from which the left common carotid artery, the left subclavian artery and the brachiocephalic trunk arise can be seen, as the root of the aorta emerges from the left ventricle. These vessels that arise from the aortic arch supply the head, neck and upper limbs with oxygenated blood through their numerous branches. The right and left pulmonary arteries, which despite being called arteries, carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for gaseous exchange.
The posterior interventricular sulcus is a groove that is found between the left and right ventricles and has the posterior interventricular artery and middle cardiac vein running within it. Finally, the apex of the heart or the cardiac apex, which is the anteroinferior projection of the left ventricle is also seen from the diaphragmatic surface of the heart.
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