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  1. Basics

    1. Terminology
      Terminology
      In Human anatomy, there are 7000+ terms that need to be learned. Start with the basic terminology and become familiar with the language used in anatomy. More.
      1. Directional terms and body planes
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        Learn all the terms used to describe location in the Human body.
      2. Female body surface anatomy
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        Body surface anatomy of the female seen anteriorly and posteriorly.
      3. Male body surface anatomy
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        Body surface anatomy of the male seen anteriorly and posteriorly.
      4. Regions of the upper extremity
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        Regions of the upper limb seen from the anterior and posterior views.
      5. Regions of the lower extremity
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        Regions of the lower limb seen from the anterior and posterior views.
      6. Regions of the abdomen and thorax
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        Regions of the abdomen and thorax seen anteriorly and posteriorly.
      7. Regions of the back and buttocks
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        Regions of the back and buttocks seen from the posterior view.
    2. First look at bones and muscles
      First look at bones and muscles
      Before immersing in the vast amount of structures that you need to learn in anatomy, let’s start with the main bones and muscles found in the Human body. More.
      1. Main bones of the upper extremity
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        Major bones of the shoulder, upper arm, forearm and hand.
      2. Main bones of the lower extremity
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        Major bones of the hip, thigh, lower leg and foot.
      3. Main bones of the trunk
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        Major bones of the thorax, abdomen and back.
      4. Main bones of the head
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        Major bones of the skull.
      5. Main joints
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        Overview of the major joints found in the body.
      6. Main muscles of the upper extremity
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        Major muscles of the shoulder, upper arm, forearm and hand.
      7. Main muscles of the lower extremity
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        Major muscles of the hip, thigh, lower leg and foot.
      8. Main muscles of the trunk
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        Major muscles of the thorax, abdomen and back.
      9. Main muscles of the head and neck
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        Major muscles of facial expression and mastication, and neck muscles.
    3. First look at neurovasculature
      First look at neurovasculature
      Blood and nerve impulses travel in your body thanks to intricate networks formed by these major arteries, veins and nerves that we are going to cover. More.
      1. Main arteries of the upper extremity
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        Major arteries of the shoulder, upper arm, forearm and hand.
      2. Main arteries of the lower extremity
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        Major arteries of the hip, thigh, lower leg and foot.
      3. Main arteries of the trunk
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        Major arteries of the thorax, abdomen and back.
      4. Main arteries of the head and neck
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        Major arteries of the head and neck.
      5. Main veins of upper and lower extremities
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        Major veins and tributaries that drain the upper and lower limbs.
      6. Main veins of the trunk
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        Major veins of the thorax, abdomen and trunk.
      7. Main veins of the head and neck
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        Major veins of the head and neck.
      8. Main nerves of the upper extremity
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        Major nerves of the shoulder, upper arm, forearm and hand.
      9. Main nerves of the lower extremity
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        Major nerves of the hip, thigh, lower leg and foot.
      10. Main nerves of the trunk
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        Major nerves of the thorax and abdomen.
      11. Main nerves of the head and neck
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        Major nerves of the head and neck.
    4. First look at systems
      First look at systems
      A organ system is a group of anatomical structures that work together to perform important tasks in your body. Let's take a look at all the systems that make ... More.
      1. Skeletal System
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        Main bones of the human body
      2. Cardiovascular system
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        Main organs, arteries and veins of the cardiovascular system.
      3. Nervous system
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        Main organs and nerves of the nervous system.
      4. Respiratory System
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        Main organs of the respiratory system
      5. Endocrine System
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        Main organs of the Endocrine System
      6. Integumentary system
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        Structure and layers of the skin.
      7. Lymphatic System
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        Main organs and nodes of the lymphatic system
  2. Upper Extremity

    1. Shoulder and arm
      Shoulder and arm
      The shoulder is one of the largest joints in the body and connects the arm to the trunk. The upper arm is mainly defined by the humerus and muscles surroundin... More.
      1. Humerus and Scapula
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        Bony structures and ligaments of the humerus and scapula.
      2. Muscles of arm and shoulder
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        Overview of the muscles of the upper arm and shoulder blade.
      3. Neurovasculature of upper arm and shoulder
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        Arteries, veins and nerves of the shoulder and upper arm.
      4. Muscles of the Shoulder
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the muscles of the shoulder.
      5. Rotator cuff muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the rotator cuff muscles.
      6. Muscles of the Arm
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the muscles of the arm.
      7. Shoulder and arm
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        [40 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the shoulder and arm.
    2. Elbow and forearm
      Elbow and forearm
      The elbow joint is found between the upper arm and the forearm. The forearm is comprised of the radius, ulna and many muscles responsible for movements in thi... More.
      1. Radius and ulna
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        Bony structures and ligaments of the radius and ulna.
      2. Flexors of the Forearm
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        Overview of the anterior muscles of the forearm.
      3. Extensors of the Forearm
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        Overview of the posterior muscles of the forearm.
      4. Neurovasculature of the Elbow and Forearm
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        Arteries, veins and nerves of the elbow and forearm.
      5. Radial Forearm Muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the radial muscles of the forearm.
      6. Superficial flexors of the Forearm
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the superficial flexors of the forearm.
      7. Deep flexors of the Forearm
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the deep flexors of the forearm.
      8. Superficial extensors of the Forearm
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the superficial extensors of the forearm.
      9. Deep extensors of the Forearm
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the deep flexors of the forearm.
      10. Elbow and forearm
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        [230 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in elbow and forearm.
    3. Wrist and Hand
      Wrist and Hand
      The wrist is a joint area that connects the forearm to the hand and is mainly defined by the carpal bones. Let's look at the structures found in the wrist and... More.
      1. Bones of the wrist and hand
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        Bones and ligaments of the wrist and hand.
      2. Carpal bones
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        Carpal bones and their bony structures.
      3. Metacarpal bones
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        Metacarpal bones and related bony structures.
      4. Phalanges of the hand
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        Phalanges of the hand and related bony structures.
      5. Muscles of the hand
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        Overview of volar and dorsal muscles of the hand.
      6. Neurovasculature of the hand
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        Arteries, veins and nerves of the hand.
      7. Thenar muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the thenar muscles.
      8. Hypothenar muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the hypothenar muscles.
      9. Metacarpal muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the metacarpal muscles.
      10. Wrist and Hand
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        [170 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the wrist and hand.
    4. Neurovasculature of upper limb
      Neurovasculature of upper limb
      The upper limbs are comprised of many structures that are supplied and innervated by arteries, veins and nerves which are found in this region of the body. More.
      1. Brachial plexus
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        Structure of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, cords and branches.
      2. Neurovasculature of the upper limb
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        [100 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the neurovasculature of the upper limb.
  3. Lower Extremity

    1. Hip and thigh
      Hip and thigh
      The framework of the hip and thigh is defined by the bony pelvis and femur. Bones, blood vessels and nerves attach to and pass alongside these bones. More.
      1. Pelvis and Femur
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        Bones and ligaments of the pelvis and femur.
      2. Muscles of the hip and thigh
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        Overview of the muscles of the hip and thigh.
      3. Neurovasculature of the hip and thigh
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        Arteries, veins and nerves of the hip and thigh.
      4. Inner hip muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the inner hip muscles.
      5. Gluteal muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the gluteal muscles.
      6. Anterior thigh muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the anterior thigh muscles.
      7. Posterior thigh muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the posterior thigh muscles.
      8. Adductors of the thigh
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the adductors of the thigh.
      9. Hip and thigh
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        [100 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the hip and thigh.
    2. Knee and leg
      Knee and leg
      The knee joint is found between the thigh and the lower leg. Many structures belong to this area of the body, including the tibia and fibula. More.
      1. Tibia and Fibula
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        Bones and ligaments of the tibia and fibula.
      2. Muscles of the leg and knee
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        Overview of the muscles of the leg and knee.
      3. Neurovasculature of the leg and knee
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        Arteries, veins and nerves of the leg and knee.
      4. Anterior and lateral muscles of the leg
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the extensor and fibularis groups.
      5. Posterior muscles of the leg
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the superficial and deep flexors.
      6. Knee and Leg
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        [ 385 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the knee and leg.
    3. Ankle and foot
      Ankle and foot
      The ankle is a region where the leg and foot meet. Both the ankle and foot are comprised of many structures including bones, muscles, blood vessels and nerves. More.
      1. Bones of the foot
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        Bones and ligaments of the foot.
      2. Calcaneus
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        Calcaneus seen from its lateral, medial, inferior and superior views.
      3. Talus
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        Talus seen from its lateral, medial, inferior and superior views.
      4. Muscles of the foot
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        Overview of the dorsal and plantar muscles of the foot.
      5. Arteries and nerves of the foot
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        Overview of the main arteries and nerves of the foot.
      6. Muscles of dorsum of the foot
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the dorsal muscles of the foot.
      7. Central muscles of the sole of the foot
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the central muscles of the sole of the foot.
      8. Medial muscles of the sole of the foot
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the medial muscles of the sole of the foot.
      9. Lateral muscles of the sole of the foot
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the lateral muscles of the sole of the foot.
      10. Ankle and foot
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        [220 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the ankle and foot.
    4. Neurovasculature of lower limb
      Neurovasculature of lower limb
      The lower limbs are comprised of many structures that are supplied and innervated by arteries, veins and nerves which are found in this region of the body. More.
      1. Femoral artery and its branches
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        Overview of the femoral artery and its branches from an anterior view.
  4. Trunk Wall

    1. Vertebral column
      Vertebral column
      The vertebral column is a bony structure that provides the main support within the axial skeleton. It is further divided into sections which will be discussed... More.
      1. Thoracic and lumbar spines
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        Bones and ligaments of the thoracic and lumbar spines.
      2. Cervical spine
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        Bones and ligaments of the cervical spines.
      3. Sacrum and coccyx
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        Bony structures and ligaments of the sacrum and coccyx.
      4. Craniovertebral ligaments
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        Ligaments connecting the skull to the vertebrae.
      5. Veins of the Vertebral Column
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        Overview of the veins of the vertebral column and the vertebral canal.
      6. Veins of the isolated vertebra
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        Veins of the vertebra as seen from a superior view
      7. Vertebral column
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        [80 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the vertebral column.
    2. Dorsal trunk
      Dorsal trunk
      The dorsal trunk is a group structures, including bones and muscles, which define the back. Those structures comprise the dorsal walls of the abdomen and thorax. More.
      1. Bones of the dorsal trunk
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        The most important bones and bony structures of the dorsal trunk.
      2. Neurovasculature of the dorsal trunk
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        Arteries, veins and nerves of the dorsal trunk.
      3. Superficial muscles of the back
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        Overview of the superficial muscles of the back.
      4. Superficial muscles of the back II
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        Facts about the superficial muscles of the back.
      5. Intrinsic muscles of the back
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        Overview of the intrinsic muscles of the back.
      6. Intrinsic muscles of the back: lateral tract
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        Facts about the lateral tract of the intrinsic muscles of the back.
      7. Intrinsic muscles of the back: medial tract
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        Facts about the medial tract of the intrinsic muscles of the back.
      8. Suboccipital muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the suboccipital muscles.
      9. Arteries and veins of the back - lateral view
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        Blood vessels of the back from a lateral view
      10. Arteries and nerves of the back - superolateral view
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        Main arteries and nerves of the back
      11. Dorsal trunk
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        [132 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the dorsal trunk.
    3. Ventral trunk
      Ventral trunk
      The ventral trunk is a group structures, including bones and muscles, which define the chest and belly, known in technical terms as the thorax and and abdomen. More.
      1. Bones of the ventral trunk
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        The most important bones and bony structures of the ventral trunk.
      2. The ribs
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        Main features of the ribs
      3. Clavicle
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        Structure of the clavicle seen from anterior, inferior and superior views.
      4. Muscles of the ventral trunk
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        Overview of the muscles of the ventral trunk.
      5. Muscles of the ventral trunk II
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the muscles of the thorax and abdomen.
      6. Neurovasculature of the ventral trunk
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        Arteries, vein and nerves of the ventral trunk.
      7. Inguinal canal
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        Structure of the inguinal canal and femoral sheath.
      8. Ventral trunk
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        [100 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the ventral trunk.
  5. Head & Neck

    1. Neck
      Neck
      The neck is the part of the body that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk. Many vital structures pass through this area of the body. More.
      1. Larynx
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        Cartilages, ligaments, membranes and muscles of the larynx.
      2. Muscles of the anterior neck
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        Overview of the muscles that define the anterior neck.
      3. Neurovasculature and lymph nodes of the neck
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        Arteries, veins, nerves and lymph nodes of the neck.
      4. Scalene muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the scalene muscles.
      5. Infrahyoid muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the infrahyoid muscles.
      6. Suprahyoid muscles
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the suprahyoid muscles.
    2. Skull
      Skull
      The skull is the most complex arrangement of bones within the body and serves mainly to protect your brain. Here you'll learn about the bones that define the ... More.
      1. Anterior and lateral skull
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        Structures seen on the anterior and lateral views of the skull.
      2. Posterior and lateral skull
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        Structures seen on the posterior and lateral views of the skull.
      3. Calvaria
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        Structures seen on the superior and inferior views of the calvaria.
      4. Inferior view of base of the skull
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        Structures seen on the inferior view of the base of the skull.
      5. Superior view of base of the skull
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        Structures seen on the superior view of the base of the skull.
      6. Midsagittal skull
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        Structures seen on the midsagittal section of the skull.
      7. Ethmoid bone
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        Structure and landmarks of the ethmoid bone.
      8. Sphenoid bone
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        Structure and landmarks of the sphenoid bone.
      9. Temporal bone
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        Structure and landmarks of the temporal bone.
      10. Mandible
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        Bony structures of the mandible.
    3. Head
      Head
      The head is comprised of many structures including the eyes, ears, nose and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions, such as sight, hearing and ... More.
      1. Salivary Glands
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        Salivary glands and surrounding structures
      2. Muscles of facial expression
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        Overview of the muscles responsible for facial expression.
      3. Muscles of mastication
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        Overview of the muscles that aid in mastication.
      4. Muscles of mastication II
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        Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the muscles of mastication.
      5. Superficial blood vessels of the head
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        Superficial arteries and veins of the face and scalp.
      6. Superficial nerves of the head
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        Superficial nerves of the face and scalp.
      7. Maxillary artery
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        Maxillary artery and its branches.
      8. Head
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        [420 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the head.
    4. Orbit and contents
      Orbit and contents
      The bony orbit is the skeletal cavity or socket which is made up of several cranial structures and surrounds the soft tissue that make up the eye. More.
      1. Muscles of the orbit
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        Overview of the muscles of the orbit and related structures.
      2. Blood vessels of the orbit
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        Arteries and veins found on the region of the orbit.
      3. Nerves of the orbit
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        Nerves found on the region of the orbit.
      4. Eyeball
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        Structure of the eyeball seen on a transverse section.
      5. Eyelids and tunica conjunctiva
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        Sagittal section of the orbital cavity and the eyeball
      6. Lens and corpus ciliare - posterior view
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        A posterior view of the lens
      7. Blood vessels of the eyeball
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        Arteries and veins of the eye.
      8. Orbit and contents
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        [161 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the orbit and contents.
    5. Nasal region
      Nasal region
      The nasal region is comprised of two main structures: nose, which defines the center of the face; and nasal cavity, a large air-filled space above and behind ... More.
      1. Lateral wall of nasal cavity
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        Bones, cartilages and mucosa with focus on the lateral wall.
      2. Medial wall of nasal cavity
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        Bones, cartilages and mucosa of the medial wall of the nasal cavity.
      3. Blood vessels of the nasal cavity
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        Arteries and veins of the nasal cavity.
      4. Nerves of the nasal cavity
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        Nerves found and responsible for innervating the nasal cavity.
      5. Nasal region
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        [170 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the nasal region.
    6. Ear
      Ear
      The ear is an organ situated bilaterally on the Human head. It is the motherboard for somatic balance and hearing. It can be divided into the outer, middle an... More.
      1. Outer ear and auditory tube
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        Overview of the structures of the outer ear and auditory tube.
      2. Labyrinth
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        Overview of the bony and membranous structures of the labyrinth.
      3. Ear
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        [100 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the structures found in the ear.
    7. Teeth
      Teeth
      The teeth are anatomical structures that can be found in the oral cavity in both the upper and lower jaws. More.
      1. Anatomy of the tooth
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        Structure of the tooth seen in crossection.
      2. Overview of the teeth
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        Overview of all the maxillary and mandibular teeth.
      3. Teeth
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        [100 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the teeth.
    8. Oral Cavity
      Oral Cavity
      The oral cavity is an important internal area of the head and it is the first part of the digestive system. It also plays a significant role in the communicat... More.
      1. Overview of the oral cavity
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        The oral cavity is the first part of the digestive system.
      2. Structure of the tongue
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        Overview of the structure of the tongue seen from cranial view of the dorsum.
      3. Muscles of the tongue
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        Overview of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue.
      4. Neurovasculature of the tongue
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        Arteries, veins and nerves of the tongue.
      5. Lingual papillae
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        Sectional block diagram showing the different lingual papillae.
    9. Pharynx
      Pharynx
      The pharynx is a muscular column that runs between the oral cavity and the esophagus. Every pharyngeal structure, including muscles and vessels, will be seen ... More.
      1. Muscles of the pharynx
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        Overview of the muscles of the pharynx and related structures.
      2. Pharyngeal mucosa
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        Pharyngeal mucosa and related structures.
      3. Blood vessels of the pharynx
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        Arteries and veins of the parapharyngeal space.
      4. Nerves of the pharynx
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        Nerves of the parapharyngeal space.
      5. Pharynx
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        [80 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the pharynx.
    10. Neurovasculature of head & neck
      Neurovasculature of head & neck
      The head and neck are comprised of many structures that are supplied and innervated by arteries, veins and nerves found in this region of the body. More.
      1. Cervical plexus
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        Structure of the cervical plexus, including the cutaneous and muscular branches.
      2. Neurovasculature of head and neck
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        [80 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the neurovasculature of the head and neck.
  6. Thorax

    1. Female breast
      Female breast
      The breasts are paired milk-producing organs found in the upper ventral sides of the torso. They contain the mammary glands which secrete milk used to feed in... More.
      1. Female breast structure
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        Structures of the female breast seen on a sagittal section and anterolateral view.
      2. Blood vessels of female breast
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        Arteries and veins of the female breast.
      3. Lymphatics of the female breast
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        Lymph vessels and nodes of the female breast.
      4. Female breast
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        [60 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the female breast.
    2. Mediastinum
      Mediastinum
      The mediastinum is an area found in the midline of the thorax that is surrounded by the left and right pleural sacs. Many structures are found within the medi... More.
      1. Contents of the mediastinum
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        Contents of the mediastinum seen from the lateral views.
      2. Lymphatics of the mediastinum
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        Lymph nodes and vessels of the mediastinum and thoracic cavity.
      3. Mediastinum
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        [42 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the mediastinum.
    3. Esophagus
      Esophagus
      The esophagus is a long fibromuscular tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach. Here we will learn the many structures that pass alongside and supply t... More.
      1. Esophagus in situ
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        Esophagus in situ seen from the anterior view.
      2. Blood supply of the esophagus
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        Arteries and veins of the esophagus.
      3. Nerves of the esophagus
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        Autonomic innervation of the esophagus.
      4. Esophagus
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        [92 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the esophagus.
    4. Lungs
      Lungs
      The lungs are two organs found within the chest cavity that are essential to respiration. There are many important structures associated to these organs. More.
      1. Lungs in situ
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        Lungs in situ seen from the anterior view.
      2. Medial views of the lungs
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        Structures seen on the medial views of the right and left lungs.
      3. Lateral views of the lungs
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        Structures seen on the lateral views of the right and left lungs.
      4. Trachea and Bronchi
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        Structures of the trachea and the bronchi seen from the anterior and posterior views.
      5. Lymphatics of the lungs
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        Lymph nodes and vessels of the lungs.
      6. Lungs
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        Lungs [127 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the lungs.
    5. Heart
      Heart
      The heart is the organ responsible for pumping blood all over your body. It is a vital organ that has a complex structure made of cardiac tissue and embedded ... More.
      1. Heart in situ
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        Heart in situ seen from the anterior view.
      2. Anterior view of the heart
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        Structures seen on the anterior view of the heart.
      3. Posteroinferior view of the heart
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        Structures seen on the posteroinferior view of the heart.
      4. Right atrium and ventricle
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        Structures of the right atrium and ventricle.
      5. Left atrium and ventricle
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        Structures of the left atrium and ventricle.
      6. Heart valves
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        Overview of the heart valves and related structures.
      7. Coronary arteries and cardiac veins
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        Overview of the main coronary arteries and cardiac veins.
      8. Nerves of the heart
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        Autonomic innervation of the heart seen on the anterior view of open thorax.
      9. Lymphatics of the heart
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        Lymphatic drainage of the heart.
      10. Heart
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        [352 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the heart.
    6. Diaphragm
      Diaphragm
      The diaphragm is a muscle that resides within the trunk and separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Many structures pass through it, including blood ve... More.
      1. Thoracic surface of the diaphragm
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        Structures seen on the thoracic surface of the diaphragm.
      2. Abdominal surface of the diaphragm
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        Structures seen on the abdominal surface of the diaphragm.
      3. Diaphragm
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        [40 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the diaphragm.
  7. Abdomen & Pelvis

    1. Peritoneal cavity
      Peritoneal cavity
      The peritoneal cavity is a space between the parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum, which are the two membranes that separate the organs from the abdomi... More.
      1. Greater omentum
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        Overview of the greater omentum and neighbouring abdominal viscera.
      2. Mesentery
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        Overview of the mesentery on anterior view of abdomen with greater omentum reflected and small intestine removed.
      3. Omental bursa
        Premium
        Omental bursa in situ with stomach reflected.
      4. Retroperitoneum
        Premium
        Structures of the posterior wall of the peritoneal cavity.
    2. Stomach
      Stomach
      The stomach is an organ found in the upper abdomen and is part of the gastrointestinal tract. The main function of this organ is to produce digestive enzymes. More.
      1. Stomach in situ
        Premium
        Stomach in situ seen from an anterior view of the abdomen with the liver retracted.
      2. Musculature and mucosa of the stomach
        Premium
        Overview of the muscular layers and mucosa of the stomach.
      3. Stomach
        Premium
        [42 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the stomach.
    3. Spleen
      Spleen
      The spleen is an organ found in the upper left part of the abdomen. Its main functions include filtering your blood, creating new blood cells and store platel... More.
      1. Spleen
        Premium
        Overview of the main structures of the spleen.
    4. Liver
      Liver
      The liver is a large essential organ found in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. It is a multifunctional unit that performs such duties as detoxification. More.
      1. Liver in situ
        Premium
        Liver in situ seen from an anterior view of the abdomen with liver retracted.
      2. Anterior view of the liver
        Premium
        Structures seen on the anterior view of the isolated liver.
      3. Inferior view of the liver
        Premium
        Structures seen on the inferior view of the isolated liver.
      4. Posterior view of the liver
        Premium
        Structures seen on the posterior view of the isolated liver.
      5. Gallbladder
        Premium
        Gallbladder and neighbouring structures.
      6. Liver
        Premium
        [100 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the liver.
    5. Pancreas
      Pancreas
      The pancreas is an accessory organ of the GI tract whose function is to release various substances that help regulate the blood sugar levels as well as digest... More.
      1. Pancreas in situ
        Premium
        Pancreas in situ seen from the anterior view.
      2. Pancreas
        Premium
        [26 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the pancreas.
    6. Small intestine
      Small intestine
      The small intestine is the part of the GI tract located between the stomach and large intestine. This structure is divided into 3 parts: duodenum, jejunum and... More.
      1. Duodenum
        Premium
        Structure of the duodenum, including the mucosa and muscular layers.
      2. Arteries of the small intestine
        Premium
        Arteries of the small intestine with focus on the superior mesenteric artery.
      3. Veins of the small intestine
        Premium
        Veins that drain the small intestine.
      4. Innervation of the small intestine
        Premium
        Nerves of the small intestine seen from an anterior view of the abdomen.
      5. Lymph nodes of the small intestine
        Premium
        Lymph nodes and vessels of the small intestine and neighbouring structures.
    7. Large intestine
      Large intestine
      The large intestine is the last part of the GI tract. This organ functions to absorb water from fecal matter and help the body get rid of the remaining waste ... More.
      1. Large intestine
        Premium
        Structure of the large intestine, including the mucosa and musculature.
      2. Rectum and anal canal
        Premium
        Structures of the rectum and anal canal seen on a coronal section, anterior view of the female pelvis.
      3. Arteries of the large intestine
        Premium
        Arteries of the large intestine seen from an anterior view, with the jejunum and ileum removed, and transverse colon reflected.
      4. Blood vessels of the rectum
        Premium
        Arteries and veins of the rectum.
      5. Colon
        Premium
        [149 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the large intestine.
    8. Kidneys
      Kidneys
      The kidneys are a pair of organs shaped like beans and located in the back of the abdomen. The main function of those organs is to filter your blood. More.
      1. Kidneys in situ
        Premium
        Kidneys in situ seen from the anterior view.
      2. Kidney structure
        Premium
        Overview of the structure of the kidney seen from the anterior view of the right kidney.
      3. Renal cortex
        Premium
        Renal cortex and related structures.
      4. Renal arteries
        Premium
        Arteries of the kidneys seen on the anterior view of the right kidney.
    9. Ureter
      Ureter
      The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that take urine from the kidneys found in the abdomen all the way to the urinary bladder, which is in your ... More.
      1. Ureters in situ
        Premium
        Abdominal and pelvic parts of the ureters and related structures.
    10. Pelvis
      Pelvis
      The pelvis is the lower part of the abdomen and houses the reproductive organs and the end of the digestive tract. All surrounded by pelvic bones and muscles. More.
      1. Muscles of the pelvic floor
        Premium
        Overview of the muscles that form the pelvic floor.
      2. Superior view of the female pelvis
        Premium
        Ligaments, vessels and organs of the female pelvis as seen from a superior view
      3. Female pelvic viscera and perineum
        Premium
        Contents of the female pelvis, including viscera and perineum.
      4. Male pelvic viscera and perineum
        Premium
        Contents of the male pelvis, including viscera and perineum.
      5. Blood supply of female pelvis
        Premium
        Arteries and veins of the female pelvis.
      6. Blood supply of male pelvis
        Premium
        Arteries and veins of the male pelvis.
      7. Nerves of the female pelvis
        Premium
        Innervation of the female pelvis.
      8. Nerves of male pelvis
        Premium
        Innervation of the male pelvis.
      9. Neurovasculature of the female perineum
        Premium
        Arteries, veins and nerves of the female perineum.
    11. Urinary bladder
      Urinary bladder
      The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ responsible for collecting urine coming from the kidneys through the ureters and excreting it via the urethra. More.
      1. Female urinary bladder
        Premium
        Anterior view of coronal section of the female bladder in the pelvis and pelvic floor.
      2. Male urinary bladder
        Premium
        Anterior view of coronal section of the male bladder in the pelvis and pelvic floor.
    12. Female reproductive organs
      Female reproductive organs
      The female reproductive system is comprised of organs specialized in functions including gamete production and nurturing a fertilized egg as it develops into ... More.
      1. Uterus and ovaries
        Premium
        Structures of the uterus and ovaries seen with uterus straightened.
      2. Uterus and vagina
        Premium
        Structure of the uterus and vagina seen on an anterior coronal section.
    13. Male reproductive organs
      Male reproductive organs
      The male reproductive system is comprised of organs specialized in many functions which include producing, maintaining and transporting sperm and protective f... More.
      1. Structure of the penis
        Premium
        Structure of the penis seen from inferior view.
      2. Urethra and penis
        Premium
        Structure of the penis and urethra seen on a longitudinal section.
    14. Blood vessels of abdomen & pelvis
      Blood vessels of abdomen & pelvis
      The abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava are the main blood vessels responsible for supplying the abdomen and pelvis, through their many branches and tribut... More.
      1. Arteries of stomach, liver and spleen
        Premium
        Arteries which supply the stomach, liver and spleen.
      2. Arteries of pancreas, duodenum and spleen
        Premium
      3. Hepatic portal vein
        Premium
        Hepatic portal vein, and veins of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas and spleen - including some of the neighbouring arteries.
    15. Lymphatics of abdomen and pelvis
      Lymphatics of abdomen and pelvis
      There are many lymph nodes, vessels and organs responsible for lymph circulation in this area of the body, not to mention their important role in the immune r... More.
      1. Lymphatics of posterior abdominal wall
        Premium
        Lymph nodes and vessels of the posterior abdominal wall.
      2. Lymphatics of stomach and liver
        Premium
        Lymph nodes and vessels of the stomach and liver.
      3. Lymphatics of pancreas, duodenum and spleen
        Premium
        Lymph nodes and vessels of the pancreas, spleen and duodenum.
      4. Lymphatics of urinary organs
        Premium
        Lymph nodes and vessels of the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra.
      5. Lymphatics of male genitalia
        Premium
        Lymph node and vessels of the male genitalia.
  8. Neuroanatomy

    1. Cerebrum
      Cerebrum
      The Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and consists of the cerebral cortex which is responsible for motor, sensory and cognitive functions. More.
      1. Lateral views of the brain
        Premium
        Structures seen on the lateral views of the brain.
      2. Medial view of the brain
        Premium
        Structures seen on the medial view of the brain. The images show a midsagittal section of the brain.
      3. Basal view of the brain
        Premium
        Structures seen on the basal view of the brain with the brainstem removed, showing the cut surface of mesencephalon.
    2. Subcortical structures
      Subcortical structures
      Below the cortex there are important structures (limbic system, diencephalon and ventricles) that play an important role in both motor and cognitive functions. More.
      1. Thalamus
        Premium
        Overview of the thalamus and surrounding structures.
      2. Hippocampus and fornix
        Premium
        Hippocampus, fornix and neighbouring structures.
      3. Thalamic Nuclei
        Premium
        Main nuclei of the thalamus
      4. Ventricles of the brain
        Premium
        Ventricular system of the brain with neighboring structures.
      5. Horizontal section of the brain
        Premium
        Horizontal sections of the brain at the levels of the genu of the corpus callosum and the habenula.
    3. Cerebellum and brainstem
      Cerebellum and brainstem
      The Cerebellum is responsible for the co-ordination of movements. The Brainstem is located in the posterior cranial fossa and consists of medulla, pons, and m... More.
      1. Cerebellum
        Premium
        Anterior and superior views of the cerebellum.
      2. Cerebellar nuclei
        Premium
        Deep nuclei of the cerebellum
      3. Brainstem
        Premium
        Brainstem and related structures.
      4. Cranial nerve nuclei
        Premium
        Cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem seen from lateral and medial views.
      5. Medulla oblongata - Hypoglossal Nerve Level
        Premium
        Structures of the medulla oblongata at the level of the hypoglossal nerve.
    4. Meninges & blood vessels of the brain
      Meninges & blood vessels of the brain
      In this chapter we will explore the layers that cover the CNS (meninges) and the blood vessels of the brain. More.
      1. Arteries of the brain
        Premium
        Arteries of the brain seen from the lateral and medial views of the brain.
      2. Arteries of the brain II
        Premium
        Arteries of the brain seen from the inferior view of the brain.
      3. Superficial veins of the brain
        Premium
        Superficial veins of the brain seen from lateral and medial views of the brain.
      4. Meninges of the brain
        Premium
        Meninges and superficial vessels of the brain.
      5. Dural venous sinuses
        Premium
        Dural venous sinuses and neighbouring structures.
    5. Spinal cord
      Spinal cord
      The spinal cord (medulla) and the brain, together, make up the central nervous system (CNS). This chapter will discuss all the anatomy related to the spinal c... More.
      1. Spinal cord in situ
        Premium
        Spinal cord in situ seen at the level of a thoracic vertebra.
      2. Structure of spinal cord
        Premium
        Full structure of the spinal cord seen from a dorsal view.
      3. Spinal membranes and nerve roots
        Premium
        Section of the spinal cord showing the spinal membranes and nerve roots.
      4. Blood vessels of the spinal cord
        Premium
        Arteries and veins of the spinal cord.
    6. Cranial nerves
      Cranial nerves
      The twelve cranial nerves emerge directly from the brain and the brainstem. Via the cranial nerves, information is exchanged between the brain and areas of th... More.
      1. 12 cranial nerves
        Premium
        Overview of the 12 cranial nerves.
      2. Olfactory nerve
        Premium
        Course of the olfactory nerve viewed from the left side of a parasagittal section.
      3. Optic nerve
        Premium
        Optic nerve and visual pathway.
      4. Oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves
        Premium
        Course of the oculomotor, abducens and trochlear nerves.
      5. Ophthalmic nerve
        Premium
        Course and branches of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve.
      6. Maxillary nerve
        Premium
        Course and branches of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve.
      7. Mandibular nerve
        Premium
        Course and branches of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve.
      8. Facial nerve
        Premium
        Nuclei, course and branches of the facial nerve.
      9. Vestibulocochlear nerve
        Premium
        Nuclei, course and branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
      10. Glossopharyngeal nerve
        Premium
        Course, branches and nuclei of the glossopharyngeal nerve.
      11. Vagus nerve
        Premium
        Course, branches and nuclei of the vagus nerve.
      12. Accessory nerve
        Premium
        Course, branches and nuclei of the accessory nerve.
      13. Hypoglossal nerve
        Premium
        Course, branches and nuclei of the hypoglossal nerve.
      14. Taste Pathway
        Premium
        Neural pathway of the taste.
      15. Cranial nerves
        Premium
        [86 questions] - Clinical anatomy, topography, functions and more details related to the cranial nerves.
  9. Cross Sections

    1. Head and Neck
      Head and Neck
      In this chapter we explore the brain, the sensory organs, the skull as well as the different structures of the neck that are visible in a series of cross sect... More.
      1. Superior Sagittal Sinus Level
        Premium
        Structures at the level of the superior sagittal sinus
      2. Frontal Sinus Level
        Premium
        Structures of the brain at the level of the frontal sinus
      3. Caudate Nucleus Level
        Premium
        Horizontal level of the brain at the level of the caudate nucleus
      4. Thalamus Level
        Free
        Structures of the brain, bony structures and muscles of the head.
      5. Optic Chiasm Level
        Premium
        Structures of the brain at the level of the optic chiasm
      6. Maxillary Sinus Level
        Premium
        Structures of the head at the level of the maxillary sinus
      7. Sigmoid Sinus Level
        Premium
        Structures of the head at the level of the sigmoid sinus
      8. Tongue Level
        Premium
        Structures at the level of the tongue.
      9. 3rd Cervical Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Muscles, bones and vessels at the level of the third cervical vertebra
      10. 4th Cervical Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra
      11. 6th Cervical Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Muscles and vessels at the level of the 6th cervical vertebra.
      12. 7th Cervical Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures at the lowest part of the neck
    2. Upper Extremity
      Upper Extremity
      In this chapter we see the bones, the muscles and the vessels of the upper extremity in the cross-sectional plane More.
      1. Deltoid Muscle Level
        Premium
        Bony elements and muscles of the upper arm
      2. Coracobrachialis Muscle Level
        Premium
        Muscles and bones at the upper part of the arm
      3. Biceps Brachii Muscle Level
        Premium
        Structures of the arm at the level of the biceps brachii muscle.
      4. Brachialis Muscle Level
        Premium
        Muscles, bones and vessels at the level of the brachialis muscle
      5. Olecranon Fossa Level
        Premium
        Structures at the lowest part of the arm
      6. Supinator Muscle Level
        Premium
        Muscles and bones at the level of the supinator muscle.
      7. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle Level
        Premium
        Structures of forearm at the level of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle
      8. Pronator Quadratus Muscle Level
        Premium
        Muscles and bones at the lowest part of the forearm.
    3. Thorax
      Thorax
      In this chapter we will explore the organs of the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall as seen in cross sections. More.
      1. 1st Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures at the level of the first thoracic vertebra
      2. 2nd Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures at the level of the second thoracic vertebra
      3. 3rd Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Free
        Lungs, important vessels, muscles and bones of the thorax.
      4. 4th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures at the level of the 4th thoracic vertebra
      5. 5th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures of the thorax at the level of the 5th thoracic vertebra
      6. Pulmonary Veins Level
        Premium
        Structures of the thorax at the level of the pulmonary veins
      7. 7th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Lungs, vessels, muscles of the lower part of the thorax.
      8. 8th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures of the thorax at the level of the 8th thoracic vertebra
      9. 9th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Organs, muscles and bones at the level of the 9th thoracic vertebra.
      10. 10th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Cross section at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra
    4. Abdomen
      Abdomen
      In this chapter we will explore the abdominal organs as well as the muscles and bones of the abdominal wall through a series of cross sections. More.
      1. 11th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Viscera of the abdominal cavity, bones and muscles of the abdominal wall.
      2. 12th Thoracic Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Viscera and musculo-skeletal structures at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra
      3. 1st Lumbar Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Structures at the level of the first lumbar vertebra
      4. 2nd Lumbar Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Cross section of the abdomen at the level of the second lumbar vertebra
      5. 3rd Lumbar Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Cross section of the abdomen at the level of the third lumbar vertebra
      6. 4th Lumbar Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Viscera, vessels and muscles at the fourth lumbar level
    5. Male Pelvis
      Male Pelvis
      In this set of cross sections we see the bones, muscles, organs, vessels and nerves of the male pelvis. More.
      1. 5th Lumbar Vertebra Level
        Premium
        Viscera and muscles at the upper part of the male pelvis
      2. Sacroiliac Joint Level
        Premium
        Structures of the male pelvis
      3. Urinary Bladder Level
        Premium
        Organs, muscles and bones of the male pelvis.
      4. Levator Ani Muscle Level
        Premium
        Muscles and bones at the lower part of the male pelvis
    6. Female Pelvis
      Female Pelvis
      In this set of cross sections we see the bones, muscles, organs, vessels and nerves of the female pelvis. More.
      1. Cauda Equina Level
        Premium
        Structures of the upper part of the female pelvis.
      2. Rectum Level
        Premium
        Cross section of the female pelvis at the level of the rectum
      3. Vagina Level
        Premium
        Organs of the female pelvis
    7. Lower Extremity
      Lower Extremity
      In this chapter you will learn how to identify the structures of the lower extremity in the cross-sectional plane More.
      1. Quadratus femoris muscle level
        Premium
        Structures of the thigh and the pelvis at the level of the quadratus femoris muscle.
      2. Gracilis Muscle Level
        Premium
        Muscles and bones of the thigh at the level of the gracilis muscle
      3. Patella Level
        Premium
        Structures of the leg at the level of the patella
  10. Histology

    1. Introduction to cells and tissues
      Introduction to cells and tissues
      Cells are the building blocks of the Human body. They work together to form what we know as tissues, the main focus in histology. More.
      1. Cells and tissues
        Free
        Overview of the main cellular components and tissues.
      2. Simple epithelium
        Premium
        Structures and types of simple epithelia.
      3. Stratified epithelium
        Premium
        Structures and types of stratified epithelia.
      4. Intraepithelial glands
        Premium
        Overview of the intraepithelial glands and related structures.
    2. Connective Tissue
      Connective Tissue
      The connective tissue connects the other tissues of the body and provides structural and metabolic support for other tissues and organs. More.
      1. Loose connective tissue
        Premium
        Different types of loose connective tissue and related structures.
      2. Dense Connective Tissue
        Premium
        Overview of the dense connective tissue
      3. Reticular Connective Tissue
        Premium
        Appearance and features of the reticular connective tissue
    3. Nervous Tissue
      Nervous Tissue
      The neurons and the glial cells are the main components of the Central and the Peripheral Nervous System. More.
      1. Neurons
        Premium
        The neurons are the basic building blocks of the Nervous System
      2. Peripheral Nerves
        Premium
        Histological appearance of the peripheral nerves
      3. Ganglia of the nervous system
        Premium
        Group of neurons organised and located outside the Central Nervous System
    4. Muscle Tissue
      Muscle Tissue
      The cells of the muscle tissue have the special ability to shorten or contract in order to produce movement of the body parts. There are three types of muscle... More.
      1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
        Premium
        This type of tissue is found in the skeletal muscles and is responsible for the voluntary movements of the bones.
      2. Smooth Muscle
        Premium
        The smooth muscle tissue forms part of the wall of blood vessels and hollow internal organs, such as the stomach, intestine etc.
      3. Cardiac Muscle
        Premium
        The cardiac muscle tissue is found in the myocardium and is responsible for the contraction of the heart.
    5. Cartilage and Bone
      Cartilage and Bone
      In this chapter we will explore the histological features of bones and cartilages which are special forms of connective tissue More.
      1. Fibrocartilage
        Premium
        The fibrocartilage is a variety of cartilage that contains visible type I collagen fibers
      2. Hyaline Cartilage
        Premium
        This type of cartilage has a glassy appearance.
      3. Elastic Cartilage
        Premium
        Elastic cartilage is characterized by the presence of abundant elastic fibers.
      4. Bone tissue
        Premium
        Bone is the basic unit of the human skeletal system.
      5. Bone tissue formation
        Premium
        Histological appearance of the bone tissue formation
    6. Cardiovascular System
      Cardiovascular System
      In this chapter we will describe the microscopic appearance of the blood and the histological features of the cardiovascular system. More.
      1. Blood
        Premium
        Microscopic appearance of the blood
      2. Bone marrow
        Premium
        Histological features of the bone marrow
    7. Histology of the Integumentary System
      Histology of the Integumentary System
      In this chapter we will explore the histological features of the parts of the integumentary system. More.
      1. Skin
        Premium
        General histology of the skin.
      2. Sweat Glands
        Premium
        Histological appearance of the sweat glands
      3. Peripheral Mechanoreceptors
        Premium
        Histology of the peripheral mechanoreceptors.
      4. Scalp and Hair
        Premium
        Histological features of the scalp and hair.
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