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Genioglossus muscle

Recommended video: Muscles of the tongue [10:18]
Overview of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue.

The genioglossus is one the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue, together with the hyoglossus, styloglossus and palatoglossus. It is a thick, fan-shaped muscle which constitutes the bulk of the tongue. It originates from the superior mental spine of the mandible above the origin of geniohyoid. Its insertion is broader, with its inferior fibers inserting onto the body of the hyoid bone and superior fibers inserting along the entire length of the dorsum of the tongue/lingual aponeurosis, blending with the intrinsic muscles. 

Bilateral contraction of the genioglossus depresses and protrudes the tongue, whereas unilateral contraction deviates the tongue contralaterally. Vascular supply of the genioglossus is via branches of the lingual and facial arteries. It is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).

Terminology English: Genioglossus muscle
Latin: Musculus genioglossus
Definition Thick, fan-shaped extrinsic muscle of the tongue, forming the bulk of the tongue
Attachments Origin: Superior mental spine of mandible
Insertion: Entire length of dorsum of tongue/lingual aponeurosis, body of hyoid bone
Supply Vascular: branches of lingual and facial arteries
Innervation: hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Function Bilaterally: Depress and protrude tongue
Unilaterally: Contralaterally deviate tongue

Learn more about the muscles of the tongue with this study unit (and article):

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