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Abdomen: want to learn more about it?

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Abdominal wall

The structures of the abdominal wall support and maintain the anatomical position of the organs within as well as protect them from injury.
  1. Regions of the abdomen
    Borders and contents of the abdominal regions.
  2. Muscles of the abdominal wall
    Main muscles found in the abdominal wall.
  3. Neurovasculature of the abdominal wall
    Introduction to the nerves and vessels of the abdominal wall
  4. Inguinal canal
    Structure of the inguinal canal and femoral sheath.

Peritoneal cavity

The peritoneal cavity is a space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum, which are the two membranes that separate the organs from the abdominal wall.
  1. Greater omentum
    Introduction to the greater omentum.
  2. Mesentery
    Overview of the mesentery.
  3. Peritoneal relations
    A comprehensive overview of the peritoneal relations
  4. Omental bursa
    Introduction to the omental bursa.
  5. Retroperitoneum
    Introduction to the retroperitoneum.


The stomach is an organ found in the upper abdomen and is part of the gastrointestinal tract. The main function of this organ is to produce digestive enzymes.
  1. Stomach in situ
    Introduction to the stomach and its relations in the abdominal cavity.
  2. Musculature and mucosa of the stomach
    Overview of the muscular layers and mucosa of the stomach.


The spleen is found in the upper left part of the abdomen. Its main functions include filtering your blood, creating new blood cells and store platelets.
  1. Structure of the spleen
    Structure, neurovasculature and function of the spleen.
  2. Spleen microcirculation
    Structure and organization of spleen microcirculation.


The liver is a large essential organ found in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. It is a multifunctional unit that performs such duties as detoxification.
  1. Overview of the liver
    Introduction to the liver and its nearby structures.
  2. Surfaces of the liver
    Identify the surfaces and landmarks of the liver.
  3. Gallbladder
    Anatomy and function of the gallbladder.


The pancreas is an accessory organ of the GI tract whose function is to release substances that help regulate the blood sugar levels as well as digestion.
  1. Pancreas in situ
    Pancreas in situ seen from the anterior view.
  2. Pancreatic duct system
    The pancreatic ducts carry digestive enzymes to the duodenum.

Small intestine

The small intestine is the part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine. This structure is divided into 3 parts: duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
  1. Duodenum
    Structure of the duodenum and its anatomical relations.
  2. Arteries and veins of the small intestine
    An overview of the vasculature of the small intestine by segment.
  3. Lymphatics of the small intestine
    An overview of the lymphatic drainage of the small intestine.
  4. Innervation of the small intestine
    An overview of the extrinsic and intrinsic innervation of the small intestine.

Large intestine

The large intestine is the last part of the GI tract. It functions to absorb water from fecal matter and helps the body get rid of the remaining waste material.
  1. Large intestine
    An overview of the anatomical features and neurovasculature of the large intestine.
  2. Rectum and anal canal
    Main features and anatomical relations of the rectum and anal canal.
  3. Arteries of the large intestine
    Overview of the arteries that supply the large intestine.
  4. Neurovasculature of the rectum and anal canal
    A comprehensive overview of the nerves and vessels of the rectum and anal canal.

Kidneys and ureters

The kidneys are a pair of organs shaped like beans and located in the back of the abdomen. The main function of those organs is to filter your blood.
  1. Kidneys
    Introduction to the structure of the kidneys.
  2. Kidneys in situ
    Kidneys in situ seen from the anterior view.
  3. Kidney structure
    Internal structure of the kidney as seen in coronal section.
  4. Renal arteries
    Arteries of the kidneys seen on the anterior view of the right kidney.
  5. Ureters
    Features, relations and function of the ureters.

Nerves, vessels and lymphatics of the abdomen

The abdomen is vascularised and innervated by an extensive network of blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves.
  1. Lumbar plexus
    The lumbar plexus supplies the abdominal wall, pelvis and lower limb.
  2. Arteries of the stomach, liver and spleen
    Arteries supplying the stomach, liver and spleen.
  3. Arteries of the pancreas, duodenum and spleen
    Arteries supplying the pancreas, duodenum and spleen.
  4. Hepatic portal vein
    An overview of the hepatic portal vein
  5. Lymphatics of the pancreas, duodenum and spleen
    An overview of the lymphatic drainage of the pancreas, duodenum and spleen.
  6. Lymphatics of the stomach and liver
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the stomach and liver.
  7. Lymphatics of the posterior abdominal and pelvic wall
    Parietal abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes and their drainage pathways.

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