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Abdomen and pelvis: want to learn more about it?

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Abdomen and pelvis

Peritoneal cavity

The peritoneal cavity is a space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum, which are the two membranes that separate the organs from the abdominal wall.
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  1. Greater omentum
    Overview of the greater omentum and neighbouring abdominal viscera.
  2. Mesentery
    Overview of the mesentery from an anterior view of the abdomen, with greater omentum reflected and small intestine removed.
  3. Peritoneal relations
    Peritoneal cavity as seen in the parasagittal section.
  4. Omental bursa
    Omental bursa in situ with the stomach reflected.
  5. Retroperitoneum
    Structures of the posterior wall of the peritoneal cavity.

Stomach

The stomach is an organ found in the upper abdomen and is part of the gastrointestinal tract. The main function of this organ is to produce digestive enzymes.
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  1. Stomach in situ
    Stomach in situ seen from an anterior view of the abdomen with the liver retracted.
  2. Musculature and mucosa of the stomach
    Overview of the muscular layers and mucosa of the stomach.

Spleen

The spleen is found in the upper left part of the abdomen. Its main functions include filtering your blood, creating new blood cells and store platelets.
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  1. Structure of the spleen
    Overview of the main structures of the spleen.
  2. Spleen microcirculation
    A close look at the structures involved in open and closed splenic circulation.

Liver

The liver is a large essential organ found in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. It is a multifunctional unit that performs such duties as detoxification.
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  1. Liver in situ
    Liver in situ seen from an anterior view of the abdomen with liver retracted.
  2. Anterior view of the liver
    Structures seen on the anterior view of the isolated liver.
  3. Inferior view of the liver
    Structures seen on the inferior view of the isolated liver.
  4. Posterior view of the liver
    Structures seen on the posterior view of the isolated liver.
  5. Gallbladder
    Gallbladder and neighbouring structures.

Pancreas

The pancreas is an accessory organ of the GI tract whose function is to release substances that help regulate the blood sugar levels as well as digestion.
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  1. Pancreas in situ
    Pancreas in situ seen from the anterior view.
  2. Pancreatic duct system
    The pancreatic ducts carry digestive enzymes from the pancreas to the duodenum.

Small intestine

The small intestine is the part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine. This structure is divided into 3 parts: duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
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  1. Duodenum
    Structure of the duodenum, including the mucosa and muscular layers.
  2. Arteries of the small intestine
    Arteries of the small intestine with focus on the superior mesenteric artery.
  3. Veins of the small intestine
    Veins that drain the small intestine.
  4. Innervation of the small intestine
    Nerves of the small intestine seen from an anterior view of the abdomen.
  5. Lymph nodes of the small intestine
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the small intestine and neighbouring structures.

Large intestine

The large intestine is the last part of the GI tract. It functions to absorb water from fecal matter and helps the body get rid of the remaining waste material.
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  1. Large intestine
    Structure of the large intestine, including the mucosa and musculature.
  2. Rectum and anal canal
    Structures of the rectum and anal canal seen on a coronal section, anterior view of the female pelvis.
  3. Arteries of the large intestine
    Arteries of the large intestine seen from an anterior view, with the jejunum and ileum removed, and transverse colon reflected.
  4. Blood vessels of the rectum
    Arteries and veins of the rectum.

Kidneys

The kidneys are a pair of organs shaped like beans and located in the back of the abdomen. The main function of those organs is to filter your blood.
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  1. Kidneys in situ
    Kidneys in situ seen from the anterior view.
  2. Overview of the kidney
    Overview of the kidney and related structures seen from an anterior view of the right kidney.
  3. Kidney structure
    Overview of the internal structure of the kidney seen from a coronal section of the right kidney.
  4. Renal arteries
    Arteries of the kidneys seen on the anterior view of the right kidney.

Ureter

The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that take urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder..
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  1. Ureters in situ
    Abdominal and pelvic parts of the ureters and related structures.

Abdominal wall

The abdominal wall is comprised mainly of the abdominal muscles. Learn below those muscles and the neurovasculature of the abdominal wall.
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  1. Muscles of the abdominal wall
    Main muscles found in the abdominal wall.
  2. Nerves and vessels of the abdominal wall
    Main arteries, veins and nerves found in the abdominal wall.
  3. Inguinal canal
    Structure of the inguinal canal and femoral sheath.

Pelvis

The pelvis is the lower part of the abdomen and houses the reproductive organs and the end of the digestive tract. All surrounded by pelvic bones and muscles.
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  1. Muscles of the pelvic floor
    Overview of the muscles that form the pelvic floor.
  2. Superior view of the female pelvis
    Ligaments, vessels and organs of the female pelvis as seen from a superior view
  3. Female pelvic viscera and perineum
    Contents of the female pelvis, including viscera and perineum.
  4. Male pelvic viscera and perineum
    Contents of the male pelvis, including viscera and perineum.
  5. Blood supply of the female pelvis
    Arteries and veins of the female pelvis.
  6. Blood supply of the male pelvis
    Arteries and veins of the male pelvis.
  7. Nerves of the female pelvis
    Innervation of the female pelvis.
  8. Nerves of the male pelvis
    Innervation of the male pelvis.
  9. Lumbar plexus
    Lumbar plexus supplies the abdominal wall, pelvis and lower limb.
  10. Sacral plexus
    Sacral plexus is a nerve plexus which supplies the pelvis and lower limb.
  11. Neurovasculature of the female perineum
    Arteries, veins and nerves of the female perineum.

Urinary bladder and urethra

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ responsible for collecting urine coming from the kidneys through the ureters and excreting it via the urethra.
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  1. Female urinary bladder
    Anterior view of coronal section of the female bladder in the pelvis and pelvic floor.
  2. Male urinary bladder
    Anterior view of coronal section of the male bladder in the pelvis and pelvic floor.
  3. Penis and male urethra
    Structure of the penis and urethra seen on a longitudinal section.

Female reproductive organs

The female reproductive system consists of organs specialized in functions like gamete production and nurturing a fertilized egg as it develops into a fetus.
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  1. Uterus and ovaries
    Structures of the uterus and ovaries seen with uterus straightened.
  2. Uterus and vagina
    Structure of the uterus and vagina seen on an anterior coronal section.
  3. Female perineum
    A surface view of the region between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx.

Male reproductive organs

The male reproductive system consists of organs specialized in many functions which include producing, maintaining and transporting sperm and protective fluid.
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  1. Structure of the penis
    Structure of the penis seen from an inferior view.
  2. Scrotum and spermatic cord
    Scrotum and spermatic cord, including the coverings and contents.
  3. Testis and epididymis
    Testes and epididymides are the paired male reproductive organs involved in the production, development and storage of sperm.

Blood vessels of the abdomen and pelvis

Through their branches and tributaries, the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava supply the abdomen and pelvis.
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  1. Arteries of the stomach, liver and spleen
    Arteries supplying the stomach, liver and spleen.
  2. Arteries of the pancreas, duodenum and spleen
    Arteries supplying the pancreas, duodenum and spleen.
  3. Hepatic portal vein
    Hepatic portal vein and veins of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas and spleen - including some of the neighbouring arteries.

Lymphatics of the abdomen and the pelvis

There are many lymph nodes, vessels and organs responsible for lymph circulation in this area of the body.
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  1. Lymphatics of the posterior abdominal wall
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the posterior abdominal wall.
  2. Lymphatics of the stomach and liver
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the stomach and liver.
  3. Lymphatics of the pancreas, duodenum and spleen
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the pancreas, spleen and duodenum.
  4. Lymphatics of the urinary organs
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra.
  5. Lymphatics of the male genitalia
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the male genitalia.

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