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Thorax: want to learn more about it?

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Thoracic wall

The thoracic wall is comprised mainly of the ribs, the sternum and the thoracic muscles.
  1. Sternum
    Anatomy and major features of the sternum
  2. Ribs
    Introduction to the main features of the ribs
  3. Muscles of the thoracic wall
    Overview of the muscles of the thoracic cage.
  4. Neurovasculature of the thoracic wall
    Arteries, veins and nerves of the thoracic wall seen from an anterior and lateral view.
  5. Neurovasculature of the intercostal space
    Arteries, veins, and nerves of the intercostal space

Female breast

The breasts are paired milk-producing organs in the upper ventral sides of the torso. They contain the mammary glands which secrete milk used to feed infants.
  1. Structure of the female breast
    Structures of the female breast seen on a sagittal section and anterolateral view.
  2. Blood vessels of the female breast
    Arteries and veins of the female breast.
  3. Lymphatics of the female breast
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the female breast.


The mediastinum is found in the midline of the thorax and is surrounded by the left and right pleural sacs. Many structures are found within this area.
  1. Borders, divisions and contents of the mediastinum
    Anatomy and relations of the mediastinum.
  2. Esophagus
    An overview of the esophagus, its neurovasculature and surrounding structures.
  3. Neurovasculature of the posterior mediastinum
    Arteries, veins and nerves of the posterior mediastinum
  4. Lymphatics of the mediastinum
    Lymph nodes and vessels of the mediastinum and thoracic cavity.


The lungs are two organs found within the chest cavity that are essential to respiration. There are many important structures associated to these organs.
  1. Overview of the lungs
    Introduction to the outer surface of the lungs seen from the lateral and medial views.
  2. Trachea
    Introduction to the trachea.
  3. Bronchial tree and alveoli
    Introduction to the main structures of the bronchial tree.
  4. Lymphatics of the lungs
    Overview of the lymphatic drainage of the lungs.
  5. Lungs in situ
    Lungs in situ seen from the anterior view.


The heart is responsible for pumping blood all over your body. It is a vital organ that has a complex structure made of cardiac tissue and embedded vessels.
  1. Heart in situ
    The heart and its relationship with surrounding structures
  2. Surface anatomy of the heart
    Structures seen on the anterior and posteroinferior surface of the heart.
  3. Right atrium and ventricle
    Overview of the right heart.
  4. Left atrium and ventricle
    Overview of the left heart.
  5. Heart valves
    Overview of the heart valves.
  6. Coronary arteries and cardiac veins
    Introduction to the coronary arteries and cardiac veins.
  7. Nerves of the heart
    Autonomic innervation of the heart seen on the anterior view of open thorax.
  8. Lymphatics of the heart
    Lymphatic drainage of the heart.


The diaphragm is a muscle residing within the trunk and separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Many structures pass through it, including blood vessels.
  1. Thoracic surface of the diaphragm
    Structures seen on the thoracic surface of the diaphragm.
  2. Abdominal surface of the diaphragm
    Structures seen on the abdominal surface of the diaphragm.

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