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Neuroanatomy: want to learn more about it?

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Neuroanatomy

Cerebrum

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and consists of the cerebral cortex which is responsible for motor, sensory and cognitive functions.
  1. Introduction to the brain
    Basic anatomy and function of the brain.
  2. Lateral view of the brain
    Structures seen on the lateral views of the brain.
  3. Superior view of the brain
    Structures seen on the superior view of the brain.
  4. Medial view of the brain
    Structures seen on the medial view of the brain. The images show a midsagittal section of the brain.
  5. Inferior view of the brain
    Structures seen on the inferior view of the brain with the brainstem removed, showing the cut surface of mesencephalon.
  6. Motor and sensory cortical homunculus
    Motor and sensory representation of the body in the cerebral cortex.
  7. Brodmann areas
    The cerebral cortex is divided into 52 regions according to its cytoarchitecture.

Subcortical structures

Below the cortex there are important structures (limbic system, diencephalon and ventricles) that play an important role in both motor and cognitive functions.
  1. Thalamus
    Overview of the thalamus and surrounding structures.
  2. Hippocampus and fornix
    Hippocampus, fornix and neighbouring structures.
  3. Thalamic nuclei
    Main nuclei of the thalamus.
  4. Hypothalamus
    Nuclei and connections of the hypothalamus.
  5. Pituitary gland
    Major features of the pituitary gland.
  6. Hypophyseal portal system
    The system of blood vessels connecting the hypothalamus with the pituitary gland.
  7. Basal ganglia
    Anatomy and function of the basal ganglia
  8. Coronal section of the brain at the thalamus level
    Internal structures of the brain seen at the thalamus level.
  9. Horizontal section of the brain
    Horizontal sections of the brain at the levels of the genu of the corpus callosum and habenula.

Cerebellum and brainstem

The Cerebellum is responsible for the co-ordination of movements. The Brainstem consists of medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain.
  1. Cerebellum
    Anterior and superior views of the cerebellum.
  2. Cerebellar nuclei
    Deep nuclei of the cerebellum.
  3. Surface anatomy of the brainstem
    An overview of the surface anatomy of the brainstem.
  4. Anterior view of the brainstem
    Anterior view of the brainstem and related structures
  5. Cranial nerve nuclei
    Cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem seen from lateral and medial views.
  6. Medulla oblongata (internal anatomy)
    An overview of the internal anatomical structure of the medulla oblongata.
  7. Medulla oblongata: Vagus nerve level
    Nuclei and tracts of the medulla oblongata at the vagus nerve level.

Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels

In this chapter we explore the layers that cover the CNS (meninges), the vessels and the ventricles of the brain.
  1. Ventricles of the brain
    Ventricular system of the brain with neighboring structures.
  2. Arteries of the brain
    Arteries of the brain seen from the lateral and medial views of the brain.
  3. Arteries of the brain II
    Arteries of the brain seen from an inferior view.
  4. Superficial veins of the brain
    Superficial veins of the brain seen from lateral and medial views of the brain.
  5. Superficial veins of the brain II
    Superficial veins of the brain seen from an inferior view.
  6. Meninges of the brain
    Meninges and superficial vessels of the brain.
  7. Arachnoid granulations
    Meninges, spaces between the meninges and arachnoid granulations.
  8. Dural venous sinuses
    Dural venous sinuses and neighbouring structures.
  9. Subarachnoid cisterns of the brain
    Cisterns are the dilations within the subarachnoid space filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Spinal cord

The spinal cord and the brain, together, make up the central nervous system (CNS). This chapter will discuss all the anatomy related to the spinal cord.
  1. Spinal cord in situ
    Spinal cord in situ seen at the level of a thoracic vertebra.
  2. Structure of the spinal cord
    Full structure of the spinal cord seen from a dorsal view.
  3. Spinal cord: Cross section
    Take a look at the spinal cord grey matter and fibers of the white matter tracts.
  4. Spinal membranes and nerve roots
    Section of the spinal cord showing the spinal membranes and nerve roots.
  5. Blood vessels of the spinal cord
    Arteries and veins of the spinal cord.

Pathways of the nervous system

Main motor and sensory tracts of the central nervous system.
  1. Pyramidal tracts
    The most important motor pathways of the CNS.
  2. Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (PCML)
    This is the main ascending (sensory) pathway of the nervous system.
  3. Taste pathway
    Neural pathway of taste.

Cranial nerves

The twelve cranial nerves emerge from the brain and the brainstem. Via the cranial nerves, information is exchanged between the brain and areas of the body.
  1. 12 cranial nerves
    Overview of the 12 cranial nerves.
  2. Olfactory nerve (CN I)
    Overview of the olfactory nerve and pathway.
  3. Optic nerve (CN II)
    Optic nerve and visual pathway.
  4. Oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves (CN III, IV & VI)
    Overview of the cranial nerves associated with eye movement.
  5. Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
    An overview of cranial nerve Vi, the ophthalmic nerve.
  6. Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
    An overview of the course, branches and function of the maxillary nerve.
  7. Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
    An overview of the course, branches and function of the mandibular nerve.
  8. Facial nerve (CN VII)
    Nuclei, course and branches of the facial nerve.
  9. Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
    Nuclei, course and branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
  10. Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
    Course, branches and nuclei of the glossopharyngeal nerve.
  11. Vagus nerve (CN X)
    Course, branches and nuclei of the vagus nerve.
  12. Accessory nerve (CN XI)
    Course, branches and nuclei of the accessory nerve.
  13. Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
    Course, branches and nuclei of the hypoglossal nerve.

Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of nerve fibers and cell bodies outside the CNS that conduct impulses to or away from the CNS.
  1. Vertebral column and spinal nerves
    A lateral view of the vertebral column, spinal cord and spinal nerves.
  2. Dermatomes
    A dermatome is an area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve.
  3. Autonomic nervous system
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.

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