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Spine and back: want to learn more about it?

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Spine and back


The back consists of the posterior aspect of the body and includes the vertebral column. Let’s start with some basic concepts about the back and the spine.
  1. Regions of the back and buttocks
    Regions of the back and buttocks seen from a posterior view.
  2. Vertebral column
    Anterior and lateral views of the bones that form the vertebral column.


The spine (or vertebral column) is a bony structure providing the main support within the axial skeleton. Learn below the anatomy of the spine.
  1. Cervical spine
    Bones and ligaments of the cervical spine.
  2. Thoracic and lumbar spines
    Bones and ligaments of the thoracic and lumbar spines.
  3. Sacrum and coccyx
    Bony structures and ligaments of the sacrum and coccyx.
  4. Craniovertebral ligaments
    Ligaments connecting the skull to the vertebrae.
  5. Veins of the vertebral column
    Overview of the veins of the vertebral column and vertebral canal.
  6. Veins of the isolated vertebra
    Veins of the vertebra as seen from a superior view.


The dorsal trunk is a group structures, including bones and muscles, which define the back. Those structures comprise the dorsal walls of the abdomen and thorax.
  1. Bones of the dorsal trunk
    The most important bones and bony structures of the dorsal trunk.
  2. Costovertebral joints
    Joints between the ribs and vertebrae.
  3. Superficial muscles of the back
    Overview of the superficial muscles of the back.
  4. Deep muscles of the back
    Overview of the intrinsic muscles of the back.
  5. Neurovasculature of the dorsal trunk
    Arteries, veins and nerves of the dorsal trunk.
  6. Arteries of the sacrum
    Arteries of the sacrum from an anterior view.

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