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Recommended video: Peripheral nerves [16:31]
Histological appearance of the peripheral nerves.

The perineurium is a thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds an individual nerve fascicle, which is a group of neuronal axons. It is the middle of the three connective tissue layers of peripheral nerves, with the innermost being the endoneurium surrounding individual axons, and the outermost being the epineurium surrounding the entire nerve (all nerve fascicles bundled together). 

The perineurium consists of layers of flattened fibroblastic polygonal cells and collagen fibers enclosed by a basal lamina. It is metabolically active diffusion border and an effective barrier against foreign substances. 

Terminology English: Perineurium
Latin: Perineurium
Definition Connective tissue layer surrounding individual nerve fascicles
Function Protects nerve fibers, is a metabolically active diffusion border, maintains homeostasis of endoneurium

Take a closer look at the components of peripheral nerves in this study unit (and article):

Perineurium: want to learn more about it?

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