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The skeletal cavity that surrounds the soft tissues that make up the eye is known as the bony orbit. Bones that contribute to the formation of the bony orbit include orbital part of the frontal bone, the frontal process of the maxilla, the facial portion of the zygomatic bone, the lacrimal bone, the vertical plate of the ethmoid bone, the sphenoid bone and the orbital process of the palatine bone.
The bony orbit protects a large part of the eye as well as provides a stable and enclosed environment for the eyeball and its related structures.
The extraocular muscles that are responsible for eye movement are also protected by the bony orbit. These muscles are the superior rectus, inferior rectus, lateral rectus, medial rectus, superior oblique and inferior oblique muscles. They are innervated by the occulomotor nerve (CN III), the trochlear nerve (CN IV) and the abducens nerve (CN VI). The rectus muscles of the eye and the superior oblique muscle have their origin from a common tendinous ring known as the Annulus of Zinn, where are the inferior rectus muscle has its origin on the maxillary bone. However, all the extraocular muscles insert on the eyeball.
Other nerves that supply the soft tissue of the eye are the optic nerve (CN II) and the ophthalmic nerve (CN V1).
The ophthalmic artery, which is the first branch that arises from the internal carotid artery, supplies the eyeball and muscles of the eyeball via its numerous branches.
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