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Structure of the stomach: want to learn more about it?

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Structure of the stomach

Learning objectives

This study unit will help you to:

  1. Identify the four main parts of the stomach.
  2. Understand the internal structure of the stomach and its layers.
  3. Name the main functions of the stomach.

Watch videos

The stomach is a hollow muscular organ positioned between the esophagus and duodenum. It has a characteristic J-shape created by two unequal curvatures (greater and lesser curvatures). The four main anatomical parts include the cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Similar to the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach also comprises four histological layers. From interior to exterior, these layers include the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria (externa) and serosa. The muscularis externa is further divided into three separate layers: the longitudinal, circular, and oblique muscle fibers. The main function of the stomach involves the mechanical and chemical digestion of ingested food.

This video tutorial will provide you with an overview of the structure and function of the stomach.

Take a quiz

Now that you have watched the videos about the structure of the stomach, test your acquired knowledge with our quiz. Identify the structures in the video with the identification questions, or really get stuck in with our exam questions.

Do you have more knowledge about the stomach that we didn't cover in the previous quiz? No worries, we got you covered. Take our custom quiz about the abdominal cavity and choose topics or individual terms that you want to be tested on.

Browse atlas

Explore the parts of the stomach one by one in this atlas gallery.


Key points about the structure of the stomach
Definition The stomach is a hollow muscular organ of the digestive system, specialized in the accumulation and digestion of food.
Main parts Cardia, fundus, body, pyloric part
Layers of the gastic wall Mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa
Muscular layers Longitudinal layer, circular layer, oblique fibers
Function Mechanical and chemical digestion, absorption, hormone secretion

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Continue your learning

To continue building your knowledge, work through the study units on the stomach in situ and the anatomy of the duodenum:

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