German Contact Help Login Register

Bones of the lower extremity

Overview of the bones of the hip, thigh, lower leg and foot.

Show transcript

Hi there! It's Matt from Kenhub, and the topic of this video are the bones of the lower extremity or limb. While the song is very useful in knowing that the hip bones connected to the leg bone, it's not really gonna help you pass your exam when they ask you to name each structure. One exception would be the first bone up for discussion. Starting proximally is the hip bone. It's a very unique bone composed of three parts. You will see them highlighted in green – the ilium, the ischium and the pubis.

The hip bone connects the sacrum to the femur which is the long bone of the thigh. The femur which you now see in green from the anterior and posterior view forms the structure of the thigh. It is the longest and heaviest bone in the body. So, if you are ever in a zombie apocalypse and you are caught between a skeleton and a zombie, grab the femur off that skeleton and starts swinging. It is usually a quarter to a third of the height of the body.

The patella, commonly called the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone imbedded in the insertion tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle. This bone, easy to palpate, can be moved side to side when the quadriceps are relaxed.

The tibia comes next. Its medial and lateral condyles articulate with the femur but the medial condyle is the larger of the two. The anterior aspect of the tibia is palpable just below the kneecap and it is known as the tibial tuberosity. The distal end of the tibia articulates with the talus seen here highlighted in green on the right image which is one of the seven bones of the tarsus.

On the medial side, they are the talus, the navicular, and the three cuneiform bones – the medial, intermediate and lateral. And on the lateral side, they are the calcaneus and the cuboid. Where we had metacarpals in the hand, we now have metatarsals in the foot and they are numbered one to five with the first metatarsal relating to the big toe and then counting laterally.

The phalanges are next starting from the proximal phalanges to the middle phalanges and the last, at the very tip of the toes, the distal phalanges.

Now that you just completed this video tutorial, then it’s time for you to continue your learning experience by testing and also applying your knowledge. There are three ways you can do so here at Kenhub. The first one is by clicking on our “start training” button, the second one is by browsing through our related articles library, and the third one is by checking out our atlas.

Now, good luck everyone, and I will see you next time.

Continue your learning

Articles for further reading
Well done!
Create your free account.
Start learning anatomy in less than 60 seconds.