Horizontal section of the brain
After you complete this study unit, you will be able to:
- Identify the gray and white matter structures seen on a horizontal section of the brain.
- Learn the relations of the structures of the brain that are seen on a horizontal section of the brain.
- Familiarize yourself with the anatomy of the most common view of the brain in CTs and MRIs.
A horizontal section of the brain is a 'slice' of the brain made in the axial plane that divides the brain into superior and inferior parts. Like a coronal section, horizontal sections provide a great overview of the white and gray matter structures found deep within the brain, underneath the cerebral cortex. In addition, horizontal sections are particularly good for getting a visual of the ventricular system of the brain. This section is one of the most commonly used perspectives in imaging techniques for the examination of the brain. Thus, knowing the anatomy of this section will help you identify the brain structures in brain CTs and MRIs.
In a horizontal section of the brain, the most external part is the cortical gray matter (gyri and sulci) of the brain lobes. Found just below the cortical gray matter is the white matter, which is formed by the axons projected from the neurons found in the gray matter. The axons of white matter sometimes form bundles that 'connect' the two hemispheres (such as the corpus callosum and fornix), or tracts that connect different regions of the nervous system(such as the internal, external and extreme capsules).
Embedded in the white matter are several subcortical gray matter masses, which also contain neuronal bodies as in the cortex. The main subcortical gray matter structures seen on the horizontal section are the thalamus and the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen).
Last but not least, in this section of the brain we can see two of the four brain ventricles, particularly the third and lateral ventricle. The ventricles of the brain are a set of interconnected cavities that produce, store and transport the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the cranial cavity.
Watch the following video to find out more about all of these structures and how they relate to each other as seen on the horizontal section of the brain!
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Get a closer view on all the individual structures in the gallery below!
|Gray matter||Thalamus, basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus), hippocampus, claustrum|
|White matter||Genu and splenium of corpus callosum
Column and crus of fornix
Anterior limb, genu, posterior limb and retrolentiform part of internal capsule
|Miscellaneous||Frontal and occipital horn of lateral ventricle of the brain, choroid plexus of lateral ventricle of the brain, third ventricle of the brain, habenula, pituitary gland, septum pellucidum, hippocampus|