The muscles of the hip and thigh can be grouped into flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, and internal and external rotator muscles.
Muscles that make up the flexor muscles are;
- the iliopsoas muscle, which is made up of two muscles namely the psoas major muscles and the iliacus muscle
- the sartorius muscle
- the rectus femoris muscle
- the gluteus medius muscle
- and the tensor fascia lata
In the extensor group of muscles are;
- the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles.
- the two headed biceps femoris muscle
- and the semimembransus muscle
The muscles which make up the abductors are;
- the gluteus maximus, medius and minimus muscles.
- and the piriformis muscle
The muscles that act to adduct the thigh include;
- the adductor longus and adductor brevis muscles
- the adductor magnus muscle
- the pectineus muscle
- the gracilis muscle
- and the quadratus femoris muscle
The gluteus medius and minimus muscles act as internal rotators, while the obturator internus, obturator externus, superior gemellus, quadratus femoris and piriformis muscles act as external rotators of the hip joint.
The main artery of the thigh is the femoral artery which courses along with the femoral vein and is a continuation of the external iliac artery. The femoral nerve innervates the hip joint anteriorly, the anterior division of the obturator nerve innervates it inferiorly, the sciatic nerve supplies it laterally and it is supplied posteriorly by the superior gluteal nerve and the nerve that runs to quadratus femoris.
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