Neurovasculature of the intercostal space
After going through this study unit, you will be able to:
- Identify the arteries that supply the intercostal spaces, as well as their branches.
- Name the veins that drain the intercostal spaces and their tributaries.
- Describe the innervation of the intercostal spaces.
Intercostal spaces lie between adjacent ribs and are filled by intercostal muscles. These spaces are traversed by intercostal nerves and associated arteries and veins forming neurovascular bundles. Each neurovascular bundle lies in the costal groove, along the inferior margin of the superior rib, and passes in the plane between the inner two layers of muscles. From superior to inferior, they are arranged as vein, artery, and then nerve. Smaller collateral branches of each nerve, artery, and vein run along the superior aspect of the lower rib.
Find out more about the blood vessels of the intercostal space by watching the video below.
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Explore the neurovasculature of the intercostal space, the intercostal muscles and the anatomic relations between the structures of the intercostal space in the galleries below.
Anterior intercostal arteries
Origin: Internal thoracic artery (upper six intercostal spaces), musculophrenic artery (lower intercostal spaces)
Branches: Collateral branch
Posterior intercostal arteries
Origin: Supreme intercostal artery (upper two), descending thoracic aorta (lower nine)
Branches: Dorsal branch, collateral branch, lateral cutaneous branch
Anterior intercostal veins
Drain into: Internal thoracic vein
Posterior intercostal veins
Supreme intercostal vein (1st) drains into brachiocephalic vein
Right 2nd-3rd form right superior intercostal vein which drains into azygos vein
Left 2nd-3rd form left superior intercostal vein which drains into left brachiocephalic vein
Right 4th-11th drain into azygos vein
Left 4th-8th drain into accessory hemiazygos vein
Left 9th-11th drain into hemiazygos vein
|Nerves||Anterior rami of spinal nerves T1-T11 ->Intercostal nerves
Branches: Collateral branch, lateral cutaneous branch, anterior cutaneous branch (muscular branches)