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Arches of the foot: want to learn more about it?

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Arches of the foot

The foot is the region of the body distal to the leg and consists of 28 bones. These bones are arranged into longitudinal and transverse arches with the support of various muscles and ligaments. There are three arches in the foot, which are referred to as:

  • Medial longitudinal arch
  • Lateral longitudinal arch
  • Transverse arch

These arches have an important role in standing, walking and running. 

Key facts about the arches of the foot
Medial longitudinal arch Bones: metatarsals 1-3, sesamoid bones, cuneiform bones, navicular, talus and calcaneus bones
Ligaments: plantar aponeurosis, spring ligament, talocalcaneal ligament, deltoid ligament
Muscles: flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, tibialis posterior
Lateral longitudinal arch Bones: calcaneus, cuboit, metatarsals 4-5
Ligaments: plantar aponeurosis, plantar ligaments
Muscles: fibularis longus, abductor digiti minimi, lateral half of flexor digitorum brevis, fibularis brevis, fibularis tertius
Transverse arch Bones: metatarsals 1-5, cuboid and cuneiform bones
Ligaments: ligaments of intercuneiform joints
Muscles: fibularis longus, tibialis posterior 
Functions of the foot arches Weight bearing, shock absorption, propulsion
Clinical relations Pes planus, pes cavus

This article will discuss the anatomical structure and function of these arches, followed by any relevant clinical pathology.

Medial longitudinal arch

The medial longitudinal arch is higher than its lateral counterpart and is visible between the heel of the foot proximally and the medial three metatarsophalangeal joints distally.

Bones

The bones participating in the formation of the arch are the following:

The arch consists of two pillars. The anterior pillar consists of the medial three metatarsal heads whilst the tuberosity of the calcaneus forms the posterior pillar.

Ligaments

The supporting ligaments provide more stability than the bones of the arch. One of these ligamentous structures, the plantar aponeurosis, acts as a supporting beam between the two pillars. Another important structure, the spring ligament, supports the head of the talus. The talocalcaneal ligament and the anterior fibres of the deltoid ligament also provide stability for this arch.

Muscles

Muscles in the foot also help support the medial longitudinal arch. These include:

The tibialis posterior and anterior muscles help to raise the medial border of the arch whilst the flexor hallucis longus acts as a bowstring

Lateral longitudinal arch

Bones

The less prominent lateral longitudinal arch is formed by the following:

  • calcaneus 
  • the cuboid
  • the fourth and fifth metatarsals

Like its medial counterpart, the lateral arch consists of two pillars, which help support the arch. The anterior pillar consists of the fourth and fifth metatarsal heads whilst the calcaneus forms the posterior pillar. The main contributor to stabilisation of the arch is the fibularis longus tendon.

Soft tissues

Ligaments also have an important role in the stabilisation of this arch and include the plantar aponeurosis and the long and short plantar ligaments, which act as bowstrings beneath the arch. Other muscles and tendons, apart from the fibularis longus tendon, which contribute to the maintenance of this arch, include:

Transverse arch

Bones

The transverse arch runs in a coronal plane and consists of the following:

  • the five metatarsal bases
  • the cuboid
  • the cuneiform bones 

The intermediate and lateral cuneiforms are wedge shaped which aids in maintenance of the arch. The medial and lateral longitudinal arches act as pillars for the transverse arch.

Soft tissues

The important ligaments of this arch are the ligaments between the cuneiforms and bases of the five metatarsal bones.

The curvature of the arch is mainly maintained by the fibularis longus tendon, assisted by the tibialis posterior tendon, which both cross under the sole of the foot. The deep transverse ligaments, the transverse head of adductor longus and the fibularis longus tendon, also help to stabilize this arch.

More details about the bones and arches of the foot are provided below:

Function of the arches

Weight bearing

The arches of the foot have an important role in weight bearing. During standing, the weight of the body is distributed throughout the bones in the foot by the arches. The weight is transmitted from the tibia to the talus, before being transmitted posteriorly to the calcaneus. It is also transmitted anteriorly to the navicular, cuneiforms and metatarsals. The lateral longitudinal arch is mostly involved in transmitting this weight and makes more contact with the ground than the medial one.

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Movement

The medial longitudinal arch also has an important role in shock absorption and propulsion during walking, running and jumping. The arch acts like a springboard, as its anterior pillar is the point of take-off during these activities. The process of walking is referred to as the gait cycle and this consists of two phases: a stance phase and a swing phase. During the stance phase, the forefoot pronates which flattens the medial longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. During the swing phase, the hind foot supinates which causes the medial longitudinal arch to elevate. This high arch acts as a rigid lever for propulsion.

Arches of the foot: want to learn more about it?

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