The salivary glands are exocrine glands that are positioned in the head, in and around the oral cavity and secrete their salivary contents into the mouth. Their function is to help keep the oral mucosa protected and lubricated. They also help in the initial stages of digestion during mastication of food, so that a food bolus is created and ready to be swallowed for further processing.
They contribute to digestion through the enzymes they excrete with saliva, mainly amylase that starts the digestion of carbohydrates. The glands vary widely in their size, but also are classified based on the nature of the saliva they excrete.
|Function||Secrete saliva for initial phases of digestion and for protection and lubrication of oral cavity|
|Types of glands||
Serous: parotid gland
Mucous: sublingual gland, minor salivary gland
Mixed: submandibular gland
Location: between ramus of mandible and sternocleidomastoid muscle
Excretory duct: Stensen's duct (opens on the buccal wall at the level of maxillary second molar)
Location: beneath the tongue
Excretory duct: Wharton's duct (opens at sublingual papilla under tongue)
Location: beneath the sublingual fold
Excretory duct: multiple ducts that open along sublingual folds
|Minor glands||Location: bucca, labia, lingual mucosa, soft palate, hard palate|
|Clinical relations||Cysts, inflammation, tumors|
This article will discuss the anatomy and clinical importance of the salivary glands.
The salivary glands are divided into the major and minor salivary glands.
- The major glands are much larger in size and are a collection of exocrine tissue that secretes as a whole into a salivary duct rather than acting individually and therefore end up producing a much larger amount of saliva per day than the minor glands.
- The main role of the minor glands is to lubricate the walls of the oral cavity, while digestive and protective saliva is produced by the major glands.
Saliva is a seromucinous liquid that has several major functions within the oral cavity which include lubrication, digestion, antimicrobial action, buffering, hormone regulation and taste sensation. It contains 99.5% water and the rest is electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes and antibacterial compounds.
There are two major types of saliva that are secreted from the salivary glands and they are serous and mucous. The submandibular gland secretes both types in a 3:2 ratio of serous to mucous respectively. The parotid gland is the only gland that secretes purely serous saliva, while the sublingual gland and minor salivary glands secrete mainly mucous saliva.
The total daily output of saliva in an adult is between 1-1.5 liters of saliva.
The parotid gland is the largest of the major salivary glands and it sits bilaterally in between the ramus of the mandible and the sternocleidomastoid muscle. It produces between 25-30% of the total daily salivary output which is released through Stensen’s duct (parotid duct) whose orifice can be seen on the buccal wall at the level of the maxillary second molar.
The submandibular gland is the second largest of the major salivary glands and like all three of them it is a paired gland. It produces by far the largest amount of saliva of all and account for up to 70% of the total daily output. Wharton’s duct (submandibular duct) opens at the sublingual papilla under the tongue.
Lastly, the sublingual gland is the smallest of the major salivary glands and is unique in the fact that it has several ductal openings that run along the sublingual folds. It also secretes the smallest portion of saliva per day out of the major glands at just five percent.
The minor salivary glands account for approximately 1% or less of the total daily salivary output. They can be found in patches around the oral cavity such as the bucca, the labia, the lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral parts of the hard palate, the floor of the mouth and between the muscle fibers of the tongue.
They amount to approximately 800-1000 individual glands in total.
Salivary gland cysts can develop due to injuries, tumours, infections or salivary stones that can block the flow of saliva. Since it cannot escape into the ducts it remains within the tissues which start to swell as the saliva builds up.
This condition is usually painless but can cause problems when eating or speaking. Removal of the underlying cause will correct the problem and recurrence is uncommon.