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Adductor longus muscle - want to learn more about it?

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Adductor longus muscle

The adductor group of the thigh consists of numerous muscles which are adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and adductor minumis muscles together with pectineus and gracilis. The primary function of the is muscle group is to adduct the thigh at the hip joint.

The muscles in this compartment are believed to be evolved from both extensor and flexor columns. In this article we will discuss the anatomy of the adductor longus muscle, and also its clinical relevance. 

Recommended video: Adductor longus muscle
Origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the adductor longus muscle.

Anatomy

The adductor longus, a muscle of the medial compartment of the thigh, is triangular in shape and forms in the floor of the femoral triangle and adductor canal.

The muscle originates from the anterior surface of the pubic body below the pubic crest i.e. the superior pubic rami (just lateral to the pubic tubercle) and the Symphysis pubica. It inserts onto the middle third of the medial lip of the linea aspera. This insertion point is lateral to the adductor magnus and brevis insertions, but medial to the insertion of vastus medialis (one of the four components of quadriceps femoris).

Adductor longus muscle - ventral view

Anatomical relations

The adductor longus muscle lies in front of the adductor magnus, adductor brevis muscle, the anterior branch of the obturator nerve, and profunda femoris vessels. Pectineus muscle is lateral to it while gracilis lies medially. Anterior relations to its upper part are the spermatic cord and fascia lata, while the femoral artery and vein are present anterior to it in the lower part near its attachment.

Innervation

The adductor longus is supplied by the anterior division of the obturator nerve. All three adductors (except the hamstring part of the adductor magnus) and gracilis are supplied by the obturator nerve (anterior divisions of the ventral rami of L2-L4).

The obturator nerve is a branch of the lumbar plexus, and descends medial to the psoas major muscle in order to enter the pelvis. It runs behind the common iliac vessels, and lateral to the internal iliac artery and ureter. Next, it runs in the lateral wall of the pelvis, and will reach the superior part of the obturator foramen. It passes through the foramen and emerges into the obturator canal, and divides into an anterior and posterior branch. These branches are separated by obturator externus and adductor brevis.

Obturator nerve - ventral view

The posterior branch pierces and supplies obturator externus, and descends in the medial compartment to supply adductor brevis and adductor magnus. The nerve also supplies sensation to the upper medial thigh. The anterior branch runs in front of obturator externus, and runs posterior to adductor longus (which it supplies) and pectineus (supplied by the femoral nerve).

As the nerve passes the hip, it also gives an articular branch to the joint. It supplies adductor longus, adductor brevis and gracilis.

Blood Supply

The blood supply to adductor longus comes from two arteries, profunda femoris artery (a branch of the femoral artery) and obturator artery (a branch of the internal iliac artery).

Deep femoral artery - ventral view

The proximal part of the muscle is supplied by the medial circumflex artery (branch of the profunda femoris artery). Profunda femoris vein receives tributaries that correspond to the branches of the artery.

Actions

The main action of the adductor group of muscles is to adduct the thigh at the hip joint. The adductor longus muscle also participates in external/lateral rotation and flexion of the thigh.

The adductors help to stabilize the stance while standing, and also have an important role in balancing the body on the lower limb during walking.

Recommended video: Functions of the adductor longus muscle
Functions and anatomy of the adductor longus muscle shown with 3D model animation.

Clinical Points

The adductor longus muscle forms the medial border of the femoral triangle. The superior border is formed by the inguinal ligament, and the lateral border by sartorius. The femoral nerve, artery and vein are located in this triangular region. The nerve runs most laterally, close to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), and runs under the inguinal ligament. The nerve supplies iliacus in this region, and descends to supply the anterior (extensor) compartment of the thigh.

The NAVY acronym is an easy way of remembering the order of the structures from lateral to medial in this region i.e. nerve most lateral, then the artery, then the vein and finally the ‘y-front’ aka the pubic region. There is some space between the femoral vein and femoral artery, which allows for expansion of the vein.

Adductor longus muscle - want to learn more about it?

Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster.

Sign up for your free Kenhub account today and join over 852,397 successful anatomy students.

“I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” – Read more. Kim Bengochea Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver

Show references

References:

  • Frank H.Netter MD: Atlas of Human Anatomy, 5th Edition, Elsevier Saunders.
  • Chummy S.Sinnatamby: Last’s Anatomy Regional and Applied, 12th Edition, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
  • Richard L. Drake, A. Wayne Vogl, Adam. W.M. Mitchell: Gray’s Anatomy for Students, 2nd Edition, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Author, Review and Layout:

  • Shahab Shahid
  • Uruj Zehra
  • Catarina Chaves

Illustrators:

  • Adductor longus muscle - ventral view - Liene Znotina
  •  Obturator nerve - ventral view - Begoña Rodriguez
  • Deep femoral artery - ventral view - Liene Znotina
© Unless stated otherwise, all content, including illustrations are exclusive property of Kenhub GmbH, and are protected by German and international copyright laws. All rights reserved.

Related Atlas Images

Muscles of the hip and thigh

Main muscles of the lower extremity

Vagina level

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