The musculocutaneous nerve is responsible for very important function we use every day, bending/flexing our elbows. Tasks such as lifting a cup and brushing our teeth can become very difficult if the nerve is not functioning well. The word musculocutaneous gives us a clue as to what the nerve does. ‘Musculo’ implies its role in innervating muscles (motor part), and ‘cutaneous’ i.e. skin , suggests that it also has a sensory role. This article will discuss the basic anatomy of the nerve, as well as it’s functional purpose and clinical relevance.
The musculocutaneous nerve originates from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus (C5-7) at the inferior border of pectoralis minor muscle. The brachial plexus itself originates from the ventral rami of the C5-T1 nerve roots.
The roots emerge between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, and coalesce and mingle to form an upper, middle and lower trunk, which eventually give rise to a medial, lateral and posterior cord (all associated closely with and surrounding the axillary artery).
Path & Branches
The musculocutaneous nerve emerges as the terminal branch of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, from the C5-C7 nerve roots. The first muscle it enters is coracobrachialis and gives branches to this muscle before entering it. From here it runs in the flexor compartment superficial to brachialis but deep to biceps brachii. As it descends it innervates both of these muscles. After giving small branch to humerus and articular branches to elbow joint it pierces deep fascia and emerges lateral to biceps brachii. It then continues as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. The musculocutaneous nerve terminates as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm that supplies the anterolateral skin of the forearm.