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Overview of the different anatomical regions of the human body.
Hey everyone! This is Nicole from Kenhub, and in this tutorial, we will be discussing the different anatomical regions of the human body.
So as we can see in this image, the body can be divided into two main regions – the axial region and the appendicular region. And the axial region which is shown in blue includes the head and the torso while the appendicular region shown in green includes the arms and the legs, and both regions encompass the anterior and posterior surfaces. And the axial and appendicular regions are basically the broader regions of the body dividing the body into what we would otherwise call the torso and the limbs but, within these regions, there are, of course, several smaller regions that lie within them. And since there are quite a lot of regions we'll be discussing in this tutorial, please feel free to pause the video and repeat the terms as we go along or perhaps you can use one of your structures from your digital region to point each part as you name it and, perhaps, an organ from your oral region to say the terms aloud.
So coming back to our image of our female, we're going to begin this tutorial by looking at the axial region which, of course, includes the head and the torso and we're going to begin with the head moving down the rest of the torso as we go along and later on, we'll discuss the appendicular region.
So, as you can see, the posterior and anterior head is often referred to as the cephalic region. And the cephalic region which comes from the Greek word for "head" is the superior most part of the axial region. And the anterior aspect or the face which we're looking at right now can be divided into several smaller regions – the frontal region, the orbital region, the nasal region, the oral region, the mental region and the buccal region.
The frontal region refers to the forehead or, more specifically, the area of the frontal bone of the skull. And as you can see in our female image, it corresponds to the forehead region of the face. The orbital region refers to the region around the eyes. Their associated musculature and neurovasculature are located in the bony orbit or eye socket as it's more commonly known. The nasal region refers to the nose in the area of the nasalis muscle. The oral region refers to the mouth and the lips. The mental region refers to the chin in the area of the mentalis muscle. And, finally, the buccal region is at the area of the cheek where the buccinator muscle is found.
And on the posterior aspect of the cephalic region, there are, of course, some other regions - the occipital region which includes the occipital bone of the skull highlighted in green here and the otic region referring to the area around the ears.
The cervical region in the area of the cervical vertebrae refers to the neck, and the cervical region is part of the axial region and encompasses both the anterior and posterior surfaces.
The thoracic region, belonging to the axial region, can be broken down into the following smaller regions – the axillary region, the mammary region and the sternal region. The axillary region refers to the armpit. It is the boundary between the axial and appendicular regions connecting the two of them. The mammary region is a region of the breast. The sternal region covers the area of the sternum.
And the next region of the axial region is the abdominal region. And the abdominal region can be more generally divided into four quadrants – the left and right upper quadrants and the left and right lower quadrants. When more specificity is required, it can also be divided into nine regions and these regions are the left and right hypochondriac regions, the left and right lumbar regions, the left and right iliac regions, the epigastric region, the hypogastric region and, in the center, the umbilical region.
So now we're just looking at our pelvic region and, as you can see, the pelvic and stomach regions are actually interconnected. When referring to the pelvic region, the left and right iliac regions of the stomach can also be called the left and right inguinal regions. The hypogastric region of the stomach can also be called the pelvic or the suprapubic region. And directly inferior to it lies the pubic region which contains the genitals.
And now we've looked at the anterior aspects of the axial region, let's look at the regions of the posterior or the dorsal axial region. And in this image of our male, we can clearly see the scapular region in the area of the scapula, the vertebral region which includes the vertebral column, the lumbar region which refers to the lower back including the lumbar vertebrae, the sacral region which refers to the area of the sacrum, the gluteal region which refers to the buttocks, and the perineal region located in the area around the anus.
So now we're finished with the axial region, let's move on to the appendicular region. And the appendicular region as you may remember includes the upper and lower limbs. And in this slide, we're going to have a look at the upper limb which we're going to break down into the following smaller regions – the acromial region which is in the area of the acromioclavicular joint of the superior shoulder, the deltoid which lies inferior to the acromial region over the lateral aspect of the shoulder, the brachial region which comprises the upper arm, the antecubital region which is the anterior surface of the elbow, the antebrachial region which is the forearm and the carpal region or the wrist. And note that the acromial, deltoid, brachial, antebrachial and carpal regions all encompass both the anterior and the posterior of the appendicular region.
On the posterior aspect of the upper limb, the only region that is not present is the antecubital region which is only found on the anterior arm. It is instead replaced by the olecranol region on the posterior arm, and the olecranol region includes the olecranon of the ulna otherwise known as the elbow.
Moving down the upper limb, we can now find ourselves located at the hand which is referred to as the manus. From an anterior view, there are three smaller regions – the palmar region which refers to the palm of the hand, the pollex region which refers to the thumb, and the digital region which refers to the remaining four fingers. And the digital and pollex regions encompass both the anterior and the posterior surfaces of the hand, however, on the dorsum or the posterior surface of the hand, the metacarpal region replaces the palmar region.
And now that we're done with the upper limb, let's move on to the lower limb. And in the lower limb as in the upper limb, there are several regions – the coxal region which refers to the lateral superior thigh at the level of the hip, the femoral region which refers to the thigh, the patellar region which refers to the knee, the crural region which refers to the anterior lower leg, and the fibular or the peroneal region which refers to the medial aspect of the lower leg. On the posterior surface of the lower limb, the patella and crural regions are absent. Instead, the crural region is replaced by the sural region which refers to the posterior lower leg. The patellar region is replaced by the popliteal region which refers to the posterior knee.
And, finally, moving on to the pedal region or foot, we have the following regions – the metatarsal region highlighted in green, the tarsal region or the ankle, the digital region which refers to the toes, and the hallux region which refers to the big toe. The plantar surface of the foot is called the plantar region and, posteriorly, we can find the calcaneal region in the area of the heel.