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Mastoid process

Mastoid process (Processus mastoideus)
Mastoid process (Processus mastoideus)

The skull is composed of multiple small bones held together by fibrous joints. Its inferior surface gives rise to a number of projections, and these allow for the attachment of many structures of the neck and face. The temporal bone is one of the bones of the skull. Itis a complex bone, which along with many of its landmarks, features a bulgy prominence called the mastoid process.

The mastoid process is easily palpable just behind the ears. It serves for the attachment of many head muscles. Moreover, it contains air-filled spaces called the mastoid air cells.

In this article, we will discuss the gross and functional anatomy, together with the clinical relevance of one of the projections, the mastoid process.

  1. Borders and relations
  2. Muscles
  3. Fossae, grooves and features
  4. Mastoiditis
  5. Sources
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Borders and relations

The mastoid process is a pyramidal bony projection from the posterior section of the temporal bone. The superior border of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone articulates with the parietal bone.

It might be a good idea to learn the full anatomy of the skull before zoning in on specific structures like the mastoid practice. Our skull bone quizzes and diagrams are ready and waiting for you!

The posterior border articulates with the occipital bone, and the anterior border is merged with the descending portion of the squamous section of the temporal bone. The petrosquamous suture runs vertically from the superior border of the mastoid process.

Learn the anatomy of the temporal bone with our study materials:


The mastoid part has a rough outer surface that gives rise to the occipital belly of occipitofrontalis muscle, which covers the skull from the superior nuchal line to the mastoid process. This muscle is innervated by the posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve  (cranial nerve VII).

It also gives rise to auricularis posterior muscle that attaches to the lower part of the cranial surface of the concha (outer ear).

The mastoid process itself (the pointed projection) gives rise to:

  • the posterior belly of the digastric muscle (opens the jaw when the masseter and temporalis muscles are relaxed)

Fossae, grooves and features

The medial surface of the mastoid portion has a deep groove called the digastric fossa, which allows the digastric muscle to attach. Further medial to this groove is the occipital groove, which the occipital artery passes over. The sigmoid sulcus also lies on the inner portion of the mastoid bone and is there the transverse venous sinus of the brain lodges.

Mastoid process in a cadaveric skull. Notice the stylomastoid foramen; it is the opening through which the facial nerve (CN VII) and the stylomastoid artery leave the skull.

The styloid process lies anterior and medial to the mastoid process, and in between them is the stylomastoid foramen. This foramen allows the muscular branch of the facial nerve to leave the skull and go onto innervate the muscles of facial expression. The mastoid bone is normally pneumatised or air filled by the mastoid air cells.

Test your knowledge on the parts of the temporal bone here:

Mastoid process: want to learn more about it?

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