The nasal bone is a small, flat bone of the skull. It makes up the facial skeleton (viscerocranium) along with the zygomatic bone, maxillae, palatine bones, lacrimal bones, inferior nasal conchae, vomer and mandible.
The nasal bone is located medial to the frontal processes of the maxillae. It is rectangle-shaped and thus has two surfaces and four borders. Its superior borders and main bodies form the bridge of the nose while the inferior borders connect with the nasal cartilage to form the superior margin of the nasal cavity.
The nasal bone is a paired bone, located left and right to the midline, interposed between the frontal processes of the maxillae. The two nasal bones are connected medially via the internasal suture. It has two surfaces (external and internal) and four borders. The external surface is transversely convex and covered by the procerus and nasalis muscles. In contrast, the internal surface is transversely concave and hosts a longitudinal groove for the anterior ethmoidal nerve.
The nasal bone forms a number of connections with the surrounding bones of the skull. The superior border of the nasal bone connects with the nasal part of the frontal bone forming the frontonasal suture. Laterally, the nasal bone is connected to the frontal process of the maxilla via the nasomaxillary suture. Its inferior border is attached to the lateral cartilage of the nose. Via the medial border, the nasal bone articulates with its contralateral counterpart. In addition, the medial border projects behind as a vertical crest, contributing to a small part of the nasal septum. The medial border connects with the following structures (superior to inferior): the nasal spine of the frontal bone, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, and the nasal septal cartilage.
The main function of the nasal bone is to form the external surface of the nose, nasal aperture, and to protect the nasal cavity from external factors.
Latin: Os nasale
English: Nasal bone
|Definition||Paired bone of the viscerocranium located between the two frontal processes of maxillae, forming the nasal bridge|
Two surfaces (internal, external);
Four borders (superior, inferior, medial, lateral)
Superiorly: Frontal bone
Inferiorly: Lateral cartilage of the nose
Laterally: Frontal process of maxilla
Medially: Its contralateral counterpart
|Functions||Formation of the nasal cavity, nasal bridge, nasal aperture, protection.|
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Le Fort II fracture
The nose is an extremely frequent place for fractures, e.g. due to sports injuries, road traffic accidents and fist fights. One typical example is the Le Fort II fracture.
It has a pyramidal-shaped outline and extends from the nasal bridge superiorly to the pterygoid plates inferiorly. Laterally, it passes through the inferior orbital floor and the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus.
As it requires a great force to cause a Le Fort fracture the affected patients ought to be checked for other injuries as well, e.g. up to 50% have an open fracture with leaking cerebrospinal fluid.
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