German Contact Help Login Register
Register now
Library

Ear

Auricle

An organ situated bilaterally on the Human Cranium, at the same level as the Nose, bordering the Face and the Head. It is the motherboard for Somatic Balance and Hearing and consists of the Outer, Middle and Inner Ear. Innervated by the Vestibulocochlear Nerve, number eight of the twelve Cranial Nerves, as well as smaller branches from other Nerves, this mixture of Bones, Nerves, Vessels, Membranes, Skin and Muscles is essential for the everyday function of one of the five Human Senses.

Outer Ear

A Cartilaginous structure that is covered with Skin and lightly vascularized. It consists of the following convexities, concavities and folds (in a clockwise direction):

  • Tragus
  • Intertragic Notch
  • Antitragus
  • Auricular Lobule
  • Auricular Concha
  • Antihelix
  • Auricular Tubercle
  • Antihelical Crura
  • Scaphoid Fossa
  • Helix
  • Triangular Fossa
  • Helical Crux

Within these structures lies the orifice known as the External Acoustic Meatus. This is the entrance to the Middle and Inner Ear.

Middle Ear

The Tympanic membrane is the border between the External Acoustic meatus of the Outer Ear and the Middle Ear. Just behind it sit the three Auricular Bones known as the Incus, Malleus and Stapes. They articulate upon each other and the Malleus balances upon the tympanic membrane, transmitting sound vibration from the Outer to the Inner Ear. The membrane is thin and when looking at it directly the Malleus and the articulating Incus can be seen. The Incus connects the Malleus and the Stapes, which articulates directly with the Fossa Ovale or the Vestibular Window as it is known. This is the doorway to the Inner Ear.

Inner Ear

In the most Inner cavity of the Auricle, runs the Facial and Vestibulocochlear Nerves, Cranial Nerves VII and VIII respectively. Just below these Nervous structures lies the Auricular Vestibule made up of the Semicircular Canals and the Cochlea, which consists of the Scala Tympani, the Cochlear Duct and the Scala Vestibuli. It is here that the fibers of the Vestibulocochlear nerve separate, to innervate both the Auricular Vestibule and the Cochlear individually.

Within the Cochlea are tiny hollow canals which are split into three parts, as mentioned above. Within the Cochlear Duct is an arrangement of Hair cells, that vibrate in correlation to sound and transmit the information to the following Tract:

  • Hair Cells of the Cochlear Duct in the Cochlea of the Inner Ear
  • Nerve Terminals of the Cochlear Part of the Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII)
  • Spiral Ganglia
  • Ventral and Dorsal Cochlear Nuclei in the Spinal Cord
  • Lateral Lemniscus
  • Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus
  • Inferior Colliculus
  • Medial Geniculate Body
  • Auditory Radiations in the Temporal Lobe
  • Acoustic Area of the Cortex - Auditory Cortex

Studying the Ear can be a challenge, but nowadays the many creative ideas and techniques that are accessible at our fingertips, allow the anatomy student to find the perfect method that will provide knowledge and understanding for him or her.

Amplifon provides an interactive anatomical illustration of the Auricle with information bubbles and a comprehensive guide of the mechanism and path of sound through the apparatus.

In conjunction with kenHub, this makes learning Anatomy in it’s entirety become easy!

Show references

Reference:

  • Frank H. Netter, Atlas of Human Anatomy, 4th Edition, Saunders, Chapter 1, Plates 92-98
  • Author: Dr. Alexandra Sieroslawska
© Unless stated otherwise, all content, including illustrations are exclusive property of Kenhub GmbH, and are protected by German and international copyright laws. All rights reserved.
Dashboard ear
Ear
The ear is an organ situated bilaterally on the Human head. It is the motherboard for somatic balance and hearing. It can be divided into the outer, middle and inner ear.
Video count 0 Quiz count 2 Atlas count 59 Article count 9
Outer ear and auditory tube
Organs
Labyrinth
Organs

You might be also interested in the following articles

Thumb tongue
Muscles and Taste Sensation of the Tongue
Free
This is an article describing the different tongue muscles, taste sensation and pathway. Learn the main features of this organ of the oral cavity here.
Thumb m. anconeus 1
Anconeus muscle
Free
The Anconeus muscle is a triangular shaped muscle which is located at the elbow. His major function is nearly the same as the triceps muscle ...
Thumb facial muscles   anterior view
Facial muscles
Free
This is an article on the anatomy, supply, function and pathology of the facial muscles. Learn all about the muscles of facial expression here.
Thumb larynx
Muscles of the Larynx
Free
This is an article about the origins, insertions, innervation and functions of the muscles of the larynx. Learn about the laryngeal muscles at Kenhub now!
Thumb os frontale atlas gazuthvf9khapkszcnzmtw
Frontal Bone
Free
The frontal bone is a bone of the skull enclosing the brain. Learn all about its anatomy, borders, development and more at kenHub now!
Thumb m. deltoideus 1
The Deltoid Muscle
Free
The Deltoid Muscle is an important muscle of the shoulder. It acts as the main abductor of the shoulder joint. Learn all about it here.
Thumb trigeminal nerve
Pterygopalatine Ganglion
Free
This is an article covering the formation, branches and supply of the pterygopalatine ganglion, including related pathology. Learn about it now at Kenhub.
Thumb vena mediana cubiti large 9mxdu97whn4yhzcxmwbviw
Cubital Fossa
Free
This is an article covering the boundaries, content and clinical application of the cubital fossa. Learn this topic now at Kenhub.
Thumb nasal and oral  part  cavities
Lymphatic Drainage of the Oral and Nas...
Free
This is an article about the lymphatic drainage of the oral and nasal cavities, including an overview of the lymphatic system. Read more about it here.
Thumb os nasale atlas nizbi6e0wgeneetiedbg
The Nasal Bone
Free
The nasal bones build the bridge of the nose. Learn all about their anatomy, borders, development and the Le Fort II fractures at kenHub now!